Catalog 2013-2014

Biology

253.535.7561
www.plu.edu/biology
biology@plu.edu

To learn biology is more than to learn facts: it is to learn how to ask and answer questions, how to develop strategies that might be employed to obtain answers, and how to recognize and evaluate the answers that emerge. The department is, therefore, dedicated to encouraging students to learn science in the only way that it can be effectively made a part of their thinking: to independently question it, probe it, try it out, experiment with it, and experience it.

Each major completes a two-course core sequence in introductory biology, followed by a semester of genetics. Upper-division courses in the biology program are designed so that students can continue to develop both breadth and depth of understanding of biology, expanding on the logical framework that core courses provide; breadth of knowledge and conceptual understanding are required for investigating biological questions and the application of knowledge in practical ways. The breadth of study allows students to integrate their knowledge from various sub-disciplines and understand different methodological approaches. At the same time, the curriculum provides room for students to pursue their special interests in depth. Therefore, biology graduates are prepared for a wide range of opportunities after graduation.

The upper-division courses are grouped by major conceptual ideas as such ideas are applied at the different levels of biological organization (cell, organism, population)—in sequence of scale from small to large. Important questions in biology span the range of these levels of organization. Emphasis is on understanding biological relationships within and between plants and animals.

The major requirements also stress the balance of importance of both plant and animal life, including use of selected plants and animals as model organisms. The curriculum offers opportunity for students to discover similarities and differences of structure, function, and relationships within and between plants and animals.

Faculty members are also committed to helping students investigate career opportunities and pursue careers that most clearly match their interests and abilities. Students are invited to use departmental facilities for independent study and are encouraged to participate in ongoing faculty research.


BACHELOR OF ARTS OR BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE

For either the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree, the student must take our introductory core sequence (BIOL 225 and 226) and a semester of Genetics (BIOL 330). Completion of the two-course introductory core with grades of C- or higher is required before upper-division biology courses can be taken. Furthermore, BIOL 330 must be completed within five semesters of starting the introductory core series. To ensure breadth of study in biology, students must complete at least one upper-division course in each of the three categories below. In addition, at least one upper-division course must be taken that is botanical in nature and one that is zoological in nature. The two upper-division courses that satisfy the botanical and zoological requirements could also fulfill corresponding distribution requirements. Each of the courses taken for the biology major including the required supporting courses must be completed with a grade of C- or higher and the cumulative GPA must be at least 2.00. Courses not designed for biology majors (BIOL 111, 116, 201, 205, 206) ordinarily cannot be used to satisfy major requirements. Independent study (BIOL 491) and internship (BIOL 495) may be used for no more than a total of four of the upper- division biology hours required for the B.S. degree, and for no more than a total of two of the upper-division biology hours required for the B.A. degree. Students who plan to apply biology credits earned at other institutions toward a PLU degree with a biology major should be aware that at least 14 hours in biology, numbered 300 or higher and including BIOL 499A and 499B, must be earned in residence at PLU. Each student must consult with a biology advisor to discuss selection of electives appropriate for educational and career goals. Basic requirements under each plan for the major are listed below.

BACHELOR OF ARTS DEGREE
Major in Biology
34 semester hours in Biology, plus 8 semester hours in required supporting courses
  • BIOL 225, 226, 330, 499A, and 499B
    • Plus: 20 additional upper-division biology hours that satisfy the following requirements:
      • Cellular and Molecular Biology (one course): BIOL 341, 342, 442, 444, 445, 448, or 449
      • Organism Structure and Function (one course): BIOL 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, or 453
      • Ecology and Evolution (one course): BIOL 362, 366, 367, 368, 369, 461, or 462
  • At least one upper-division course must be botanical in nature. Courses satisfying this requirement are: BIOL 356, 358, and 462
  • At least one upper-division course must be zoological in nature. Courses satisfying this requirement are: BIOL 352, 353, 354, 355, 362, and 453
  • Required supporting courses: CHEM 115 and MATH 140
  • Recommended supporting courses: PHYS 125 (with 135 Lab) and PHYS 126 (with 136 Lab)

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE
Major in Biology
42 semester hours in Biology, plus 18 semester hours in required supporting courses
  • BIOL 225, 226, 330, 499A, and 499B
    • Plus: 28 additional upper-division biology hours that satisfy the following requirements:
      • Cellular and Molecular Biology (one course): BIOL 341, 342, 442, 444, 445, 448, or 449
      • Organism Structure and Function (one course): BIOL 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, or 453
      • Ecology and Evolution (one course): BIOL 362, 366, 367, 368, 369, 461, or 462
  • At least one upper-division course must be botanical in nature. Courses satisfying this requirement are: BIOL 356, 358, and 462
  • At least one upper-division course must be zoological in nature. Courses satisfying this requirement are: BIOL 352, 353, 354, 355, 362, and 453
  • For the B.S. degree only, CHEM 403 may count as an upper-division biology course with approval of the department chair. The use of CHEM 403 for the B.S. degree cannot be used to satisfy any of the distribution requirements listed above.
  • Required supporting courses:
    • CHEM 115 and 116, 331 (with 333 Lab)
    • MATH 151
    • PHYS 125 (with 135 Lab) or PHYS 153 (with 163 Lab)
    • PHYS 126 (with 136 Lab) or PHYS 154 (with 164 Lab)
BIOLOGY SECONDARY EDUCATION

Students planning to be certified to teach biology in high school should plan to complete a B.A. or B.S. in biology. Upper-division biology course selection should be made in consultation with a biology advisor. See the Department of Education section of the catalog for biology courses required for certification.


MINOR
20 semester hours including:
  • BIOL 225, 226
  • 12 semester hours elective coursework in biology (minimum 4 hours upper division required)*

*No more than one 100-level course can be applied to the minor; this course must be taken prior to enrolling in BIOL 225.

At least 8 semester hours for the minor must be earned in courses taken at PLU. For those students applying only 8 semester hours of PLU biology credit toward the minor, those hours cannot include independent study (BIOL 491) or internship (BIOL 495).

COURSE OFFERINGS BY SEMESTER/TERM

Fall Semester: 116, 201, 205, 225, 226, 330, 353, 362, 368, 387, 444, 445, 453, 461, 491, 495, 499A, 499B
January Term: 357, 366 (alternate years), 491, 495, 499A
Spring Semester: 111, 206, 225, 226, 330, 341, 342, 352, 355 (alternate years), 356, 367 (alternate years), 387, 442, 448, 449, 462, 491, 495, 499A, 499B

Biology (BIOL) Undergraduate-Level Courses

BIOL 111: Biology and the Modern World - NS, SM

This course is intended to introduce students to the principles and concepts that pertain to all living organisms, with special emphasis on those topics typically encountered in everyday life, including human physiology and disease, environmental issues, and the fundamentals of genetics. Lecture and laboratory. Not intended for biology majors. (4)

BIOL 116: Introductory Ecology - NS, SM

A study of the interrelationships between organisms and their environment examining concepts in ecology that lead to understanding the nature and structure of ecosystems and how humans impact ecosystems. Includes laboratory. Not intended for biology majors. (4)

BIOL 190: FYEP190: Inquiry Seminar

A four credit seminar to introduce students to the methods and topics of study within a particular academic discipline or field. Students practice the academic skills that are at the center of the General Education Program. (4)

BIOL 201: Introductory Microbiology - NS, SM

The structure, metabolism, growth, and genetics of microorganisms, especially bacteria and viruses, with emphasis on their roles in human disease. Laboratory focuses on cultivation, identification, and control of growth of bacteria. Prerequisite: CHEM 105. Not intended for biology majors. (4)

BIOL 205: Human Anatomy and Physiology I - NS, SM

The first half of a two-course sequence. Topics include matter, cells, tissues, and the anatomy and physiology of four systems: skeletal, muscular, nervous, and endocrine. Laboratory includes cat dissection and experiments in muscle physiology and reflexes. Not intended for biology majors. (4)

BIOL 206: Human Anatomy and Physiology II - NS, SM

The second half of a two-course sequence. Topics include metabolism, temperature regulation, development, inheritance, and the anatomy and physiology of five systems: circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory, and reproductive. Laboratory includes cat dissection, physiology experiments, and study of developing organisms. Not intended for biology majors. Prerequisite: BIOL 205. (4)

BIOL 225: Molecules, Cells, and Organisms - NS, SM

An introduction to the concepts and study of the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels of biological organization. Cell structure and function, energy transformation, the central dogma of molecular biology, plant and animal anatomy and physiology, response to environmental changes, plant and animal reproduction and development. Includes laboratory. Co-registration or completion of CHEM 115 is recommended. (4)

BIOL 226: Genes, Evolution, Diversity, and Ecology - NS, SM

An introduction to the concepts and study of Mendelian and population genetics, evolution, ecology, and a systematic survey of life on earth. Includes laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 225 with a C- or better. (4)

BIOL 287: Special Topics in Biology

To provide undergraduate students with new, one-time, and developing courses not yet available in the regular curriculum. The title will be listed on the student term-based record as ST: followed by the specific title designated by the academic unit. (1 to 4)

BIOL 288: Special Topics in Biology

To provide undergraduate students with new, one-time, and developing courses not yet available in the regular curriculum. The title will be listed on the student term-based record as ST: followed by the specific title designated by the academic unit. (1 to 4)

BIOL 289: Special Topics in Biology

To provide undergraduate students with new, one-time, and developing courses not yet available in the regular curriculum. The title will be listed on the student term-based record as ST: followed by the specific title designated by the academic unit. (1 to 4)

BIOL 291: Directed Study

To provide individual undergraduate students with introductory study not available in the regular curriculum. The title will be listed on the student term-based record as DS: followed by the specific title designated by the student. (1 to 4)

BIOL 330: Genetics

Basic concepts considering the molecular basis of gene expression, recombination, genetic variability, as well as cytogenetics, and population genetics. Includes tutorials and demonstration sessions. Prerequisite: BIOL 226. (4)

BIOL 341: Developmental Biology

The embryonic and larval development of multicellular organisms (primarily animals). Examples are chosen from popular contemporary model systems, and the emphasis is on cellular and molecular aspects of development. The laboratory includes descriptive and quantitative experiments, as well as student-planned projects. Prerequisite: BIOL 226. (4)

BIOL 342: Microbiology

The structure, physiology, genetics, and metabolism of microorganisms with emphasis on their diversity and ecology. The laboratory emphasizes design, implementation, and evaluation of both descriptive and quantitative experiments as well as isolation of organisms from natural sources. Prerequisites: BIOL 226; CHEM 331 with CHEM 333 recommended. (4)

BIOL 352: Comparative Anatomy

Evolutional history of the vertebrate body, introduction to embryology, and extensive consideration of the structural and functional anatomy of vertebrates. Includes laboratory dissections following a systems approach. Mammals are featured plus some observation of and comparison with human cadavers. Prerequisite: BIOL 226. (4)

BIOL 353: Invertebrate Zoology

The study of invertebrate animals emphasizing their classification, anatomy, physiology and natural history. Coverage will also include the economic and human health importance of select groups. Laboratory emphasis on identification, taxonomy and anatomy. Field trips to observe living representatives. Prerequisite: BIOL 226 or consent of instructor. (4)

BIOL 354: Natural History of Vertebrates

A systematic survey of vertebrate diversity including fishes, amphibians, non-avian reptiles, and mammals. Coverage emphasizes phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary trends, natural history, and anatomy. Field trips and laboratory focus on observation and identification of local species. Prerequisite: BIOL 226. (4)

BIOL 355: Ornithology

The study of birds inclusive of their anatomy, physiology, behavior, ecology and distribution. Special emphasis on those attributes of birds that are unique among the vertebrates. Laboratory emphasis on field identification, taxonomy, and anatomy/topology. Prerequisite: BIOL 226 or consent of instructor. (4)

BIOL 356: Economic and Cultural Botany

Botany of plants used by humans in a global context; traditional and contemporary uses of plants. General plant morphology and anatomy, overview of taxonomy of plants useful to humans, evolution of plant secondary metabolites, medical botany (medicines, poisons, psychoactive plants), genetic engineering, bio-prospecting and socio-economic issues surrounding botanical commodities. Prerequisite: BIOL 226. (4)

BIOL 357: Histology

The tissue level of biological organization, including animal and plant tissues. Tissue contributions to organ structure and function. Laboratory includes examination of prepared microscope slides as well as tissue processing and preparation of permanent microscope slides of sectioned and stained animal and plant tissues. Prerequisite: BIOL 226. (4)

BIOL 358: Plant Physiology

A study of how plants obtain and utilize nutrients, react to environmental factors, and adapt to stress. Focuses on mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Explores connections to agriculture and ecology. Relies significantly on primary literature. Includes laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 226. (4)

BIOL 362: Animal Behavior

A survey of the field of animal behavior with an emphasis on integrating behavioral analyses into an explicitly evolutionary framework. An understanding of both the proximate and ultimate mechanisms underlying behavior is emphasized. Laboratory/discussion in addition to lecture. Prerequisite: BIOL 226. (4)

BIOL 366: Comparative Ecology of Latin America

A comparative study of the structure and function of biotic communities, and the ecological and evolutionary forces that have shaped plants and animals. Topics include dispersal, natural selection, physiological ecology, natural history, and systematics. Conservation biology, development, and indigenous rights will be highlighted. Taught in Central or South America. Prerequisite: BIOL 226 or consent of instructor. (4)

BIOL 367: Conservation Biology and Management

Based upon the principles of population ecology and ecological genetics, an integrated study of the impacts of people on nature - specifically the diversity of plants and animals. Includes practical applications, techniques, and case studies in forest, fish, wildlife and land management. Laboratories and field trips concern resource management and use. Course may not be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: BIOL 226 or consent of instructor. (4)

BIOL 368: Ecology

Organisms in relation to their environment, including organismal adaptations, population growth and interactions, and ecosystem structure and function. Laboratory/discussion in addition to lecture. Prerequisite: BIOL 226. (4)

BIOL 369: Marine Biology

The ocean as environment for plant and animal life; an introduction to structure, dynamics, and history of marine ecosystems. Lab, field trips, and term project in addition to lecture. Prerequisite: BIOL 226. (4)

BIOL 387: Special Topics in Biology - NS

Selected topics as announced by the department. May be repeated for credit. (1 to 4)

BIOL 388: Special Topics in Biology

To provide undergraduate students with new, one-time, and developing courses not yet available in the regular curriculum. The title will be listed on the student term-based record as ST: followed by the specific title designated by the academic unit. (1 to 4)

BIOL 389: Special Topics in Biology

To provide undergraduate students with new, one-time, and developing courses not yet available in the regular curriculum. The title will be listed on the student term-based record as ST: followed by the specific title designated by the academic unit. (1 to 4)

BIOL 442: Cell Biology

Focuses on cellular organization and function, enzyme kinetics, membrane structure and function, energetics, signaling and cell cycle. Laboratory employs modern techniques including animal cell culture, cell fractionation, molecular, genetic, and biochemical assays, and microscopy (light, phase contrast, fluorescence). Prerequisite: BIOL 226 and CHEM 331 with 333, or consent of instructor. (4)

BIOL 444: Neurobiology

Neurobiology is the study of the nervous system and its relationship to behavior and disease. This course examines the structure and function of neurons and glia, neural development, gross organization of the brain, sensory and motor systems and higher functions such as learning, memory and speech. Prerequisite: BIOL 330 or consent of instructor. (4)

BIOL 445: Molecular Biology

An introduction to molecular biology, emphasizing the central role of DNA: structure of DNA and RNA, structure and expression of genes, genome organization and rearrangement, methodology and applications of recombinant DNA technology. Laboratory features basic recombinant DNA techniques. Prerequisite: BIOL 330. (4)

BIOL 448: Immunology

Consideration of the biology and chemistry of immune response, including theoretical concepts, experimental strategies and immunochemical applications. Prerequisites: Any two of the following courses in Biology: 330, 341, 342, 442, 445, 453 (4)

BIOL 449: Virology

The diversity that exists among viruses is staggering, and there is no type of life on Earth that is not subject to infection by viruses. This course will explore viral origins, replication, transmission, pathogenesis, oncogenesis, and host immunity. Emerging viruses, pandemics, and vaccines will also be discussed. Students will gain hands-on experience in a wide range of techniques and will work with both bacteriophages and animal viruses. Prerequisite: BIOL 330. (4)

BIOL 453: Mammalian Physiology

An investigation of the principles of physiological regulation. Part I: fundamental cellular, neural, and hormonal mechanisms of homeostatic control; Part II: interactions in the cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, and neuromuscular organ systems. Laboratory allows direct observation of physiological regulation in living animals. Prerequisites: BIOL 226, CHEM 115; BIOL 352 recommended. (4)

BIOL 461: Evolution

An introduction to evolutionary theory and its broad explanatory power in biology. Coverage includes: a brief history of evolutionary thought, population genetics and the mechanisms of evolutionary change, phylogenetics, speciation, macroevolutionary processes, origins of life on earth, and evo-devo. Laboratory includes simulations and empirical examples of concepts covered in lecture. Prerequisite: BIOL 330. (4)

BIOL 462: Plant Diversity and Distribution

A systematic introduction to plant diversity. Interaction between plants, theories of vegetational distribution. Emphasis on higher plant taxonomy. Includes laboratory and field trips. Prerequisite: BIOL 330. (4)

BIOL 487: Special Topics in Biology

To provide undergraduate students with new, one-time, and developing courses not yet available in the regular curriculum. The title will be listed on the student term-based record as ST: followed by the specific title designated by the academic unit. (1 to 4)

BIOL 488: Special Topics in Biology

To provide undergraduate students with new, one-time, and developing courses not yet available in the regular curriculum. The title will be listed on the student term-based record as ST: followed by the specific title designated by the academic unit. (1 to 4)

BIOL 489: Special Topics in Biology

To provide undergraduate students with new, one-time, and developing courses not yet available in the regular curriculum. The title will be listed on the student term-based record as ST: followed by the specific title designated by the academic unit. (1 to 4)

BIOL 491: Independent Studies

Investigations or research in areas of special interest not covered by regular courses. Open to qualified junior and senior majors. Prerequisite: Written proposal for the project approved by a faculty sponsor and the department chair. (1 to 4)

BIOL 495: Internship in Biology

An approved off-campus work activity in the field of biology with a private or public sector agency, organization or company. Students will be expected to adhere to and document the objectives of a learning plan developed with and approved by a faculty sponsor. Credit will be determined by hours spent in the working environment and the depth of the project associated with the course of study. Prerequisites: BIOL 226 and consent of department chair. (1 to 4)

BIOL 499A: Capstone: Senior Seminar I - SR

Seminar focuses on developing and practicing oral and written presentation skills. Assignments and activities reinforce student ability to read and interpret scientific literature. Students work with individual mentors to select and outline an appropriate topic for a research project based on a review of the scientific literature or original student research. May graduates should take this course in the fall of their final year. December graduates should take this course in their final spring semester. Together with BIOL 499B meets the senior seminar requirement. Prerequisite: BIOL 225, 226, 330, and significant progress towards meeting the upper-division course requirements as determined by the Capstone Committee. (1)

BIOL 499B: Capstone: Senior Seminar II - SR

Students continue to work with individual mentors to complete the written and oral presentations of a research project based on a review of the scientific literature or original student research. May graduates should take this course in the spring semester of their final year. December graduates should take this course in their final Fall Semester. Together with BIOL 499A meets the senior seminar requirement. Prerequisite: BIOL 499A. (1)