The Many Fields of Classics

Greek History

Overview

  • H. D. F. Kitt, The Greeks, Penguin Books, (1991) [1951].
  • J. B. Bury, History of Greece, St. Martins Press (1996) [1900].

 

Scholarship

  • Charles Freeman, Egypt, Greece, and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean, Oxford University Press; 3 edition (2014)
  • Panos Valavanis, Games and Sanctuaries in Ancient Greece: Olympia, Delphi, Isthmia, Nemea, Athens 2004

Sources

  • Herodotus (484-425), The Histories
  • Thucydides (460-395), History of the Peloponnesian War
  • Xenophon (430-354),
    • Anabasis (on the journey home of a Greek mercenary army)
    • Hellenica (continuation of Thucydides)
    • Constitution of the Lacedaemonians
  • Polybius (200-118) The Histories (on the growth of Rome)
  • Strabo (64 BCE – 24 CE) Geography
  • Diodorus Siculus (1st c. BCE) Bibliotheca Historica (a universal history through Alexander the Great)
  • Josephus (37 CE -100)
    • The Jewish War (from 164 BCE to 70 CE)
    • Jewish Antiquities (on Jewish history, law, custom)
    • Against Apion (a defense of Judaism as a religion)
  • Plutarch (46 CE -120) The Parallel Lives
  • Arrian (86-160) Anabasis of Alexander (on Alexander the Great)
  • Appian (95-165) Roman History (books on the end of the Republic, called The Civil Wars, survive)
  • Dio Cassius (155-235) Roman History (surviving portions cover approximately 60 BCE – 60 CE)
  • Herodion (170-240) History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus (covering 180-238 CE)
  • Procopius (500-560)
    • The Wars of Justinian (a pro-Imperial history of the Emperor Justinian’s conquests)
    • The Secret History (an anti-Imperial history in parallel to The Wars of Justinian)
    • The Buildings of Justinian (a panegyric of Justinian’s building program)

Roman History

Overview

  • Michael Crawford, The Roman Republic, Harvard University Press, 1992 [1978].
  • Colin Wells, The Roman Empire, Harvard University Press, 2004 [1984].
  • Averil Cameron, The Later Roman Empire, Harvard University Press, 1993.

Sources

In LATIN

In GREEK

  • Polybius (200-118) The Histories (on the growth of Rome)
  • Strabo (64 BCE – 24 CE) Geography
  • Dionysius of Halicarnassus (60 BCE – 7 BCE) Roman Antiquities
  • Josephus (37 CE -100)
    • The Jewish War (from 164 BCE to 70 CE)
    • Jewish Antiquities (on Jewish history, law, custom)
    • Against Apion (a defense of Judaism as a religion)
  • Plutarch (46 CE -120) The Parallel Lives
  • Arrian (86-160) Anabasis of Alexander (on Alexander the Great)
  • Appian (95-165) Roman History (books on the end of the Republic, called The Civil Wars, survive)
  • Dio Cassius (155-235) Roman History (surviving portions cover approximately 60 BCE – 60 CE)
  • Herodion (170-240) History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus (covering 180-238 CE)
  • Procopius (500-560)
    • The Wars of Justinian (a pro-Imperial history of the Emperor Justinian’s conquests)
    • The Secret History (an anti-Imperial history in parallel to The Wars of Justinian)
    • The Buildings of Justinian (a panegyric of Justinian’s building program)

Byzantine History

SCHOLARSHIP

SOURCES

  • Ammianus Marcellinus (325 – 391) Res Gestae (History) (from 96 CE to 378)
  • Zosimus (fl. ca. 500 CE) New History (covers the Roman Empire, but focuses on 305-410)
  • Procopius (500-560)
    • The Wars of Justinian (a pro-Imperial history of the Emperor Justinian’s conquests)
    • The Secret History (an anti-Imperial history in parallel to The Wars of Justinian)
    • The Buildings of Justinian (a panegyric of Justinian’s building program)

Greek Language

GENERAL

  • W. Sidney Allen, Vox Graeca:  The Pronunciation of Classical Greek, 3rd edition (Cambridge University Press, 1994) (first published 1968)
  • Carl D. Buck, The Greek Dialects (Bristol Classical Press, 2001) (first published by the University of Chicago Press, 1955)
  • J. D. Denniston, The Greek Particles, 2nd edition revised by K. J. Dover (Hackett Publishing, 1991) (first published by Oxford University Press, 1934)
  • J. D. Denniston, Greek Prose Style (Greenwood Press, 1979) (first published by Oxford University Press, 1952)
  • William Watson Goodwin, Syntax of the Moods and Tense of the Greek Verb (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2003) (first published by Macmillan and Co., 1889)
  • K. J. Dover, Greek Word Order (Bristol Classical Press, 2009) (first published by Cambridge University Press, 1960)
  • Nino Marinone, All The Greek Verbs (Duckworth, 2002) (first published 1961 as Tutti i Verbi Greci)
  • L. R. Palmer, The Greek Language (University of Oklahoma Press, 1996) (first published by Faber & Faber, 1980)
  • G. S. Thompson, Greek Prose Usage (Bristol Classical Press, 2006) (first published by Macmillan and Co., 1955)
  • M. L. West, Greek Metre (Clarendon Press, 1982)

GRAMMARS

  • Herbert Weir Smyth, Greek Grammar (Harvard University Press, 1984) (first published 1920)

Latin Language

GENERAL

  • W. Sidney Allen, Vox Latina:  The Pronunciation of Classical Latin (Cambridge University Press, 1965)
  • James Clackson and Geoffrey Horrocks, The Blackwell History of the Latin Language (Blackwell, 2007)
  • W. M. Lindsay, The Latin Language (Oxford University Press, 1894)
  • L. R. Palmer, The Latin Language (Bristol Classical Press, 199o) (first published by Faber & Faber, 1954)
  • D. S. Raven, Latin Metre (Bristol Classical Press, 1998) (first published by Faber & Faber, 1965)

GRAMMARS

  • Allen and Greenough’s New Latin Grammar, ed. Anne Mahoney (Focus Publishing 2001) (based on the 1903 revision of the 1888 edition by J. B. Greenough and J. H. Allen)
  • Charles E. Bennett, New Latin Grammar (Bolchazy-Carducci, 2001) (reprint of 1908 Allyn and Bacon edition)
  • B. L. Gildersleeve and G. Lodge, Gildersleeve’s Latin Grammar (Bolchazy-Carducci, 2000) (reprint of Macmillan  & Co., 1895)
  • E. C. Woodcock, A New Latin Syntax (Bristol Classical Press, 1985) (first published by Methuen & Co., 1959)

Indo-European Linguistics

PROTO-INDO EUROPEAN

  • N. E. Collinge, The Laws of Indo-European (John Benjamins Publishing Company) 1985.
  • Benjamin W. Fortson IV, Indo-European Language and Culture: an Introduction, 2nd edition (Wiley-Blackwell) 2009.
  • J. P. Mallory, In Search of the Indo-Europeans:  Language, Archaeology, and Myth (Thames & Hudson) 1989.
  • Calvert Watkins, How to Kill a Dragon: Aspects of Indo-European Poetics (Oxford University Press) 1995.

LINGUISTICS GENERALLY

  • Bernard Comrie, Language Universals & Linguistic Typology, 2nd edition (University of Chicago) 1989.
  • Geofrey Finch, How to Study Linguistics, 2nd edition (Palgrave Macmillan) 2003.

HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS

  • Lyle CampbellHistorical Linguistics:  An Introduction, 2nd edition (MIT Press) 2004.
  • R. L. Trask, Historical Linguistics (Arnold) 1996.

GREEK LINGUISTICS

  • W. Sidney Allen, Vox Graeca: The Pronunciation of Classical Greek, 3rd edition (Cambridge University Press) 1987.
  • C. D. Buck, The Greek Dialects (Duckworth) 2001 (originally published by University of Chicago, 1955)
  • Pierre Chantraine, Morphologie historique du grec (Klincksieck) 2002 (originally 1945).
  • L. R. Palmer, The Greek Language (University of Oklahoma) 1990 (originally published by Faber & Faber in 1980).

LATIN LINGUISTICS

  • W. Sidney Allen,  Vox Latina:  The Pronunciation of Classical Latin, 2nd edition (Cambridge University Press) 1978
  • L. R. Palmer, The Latin Language (Bristol Classical Press) 1990. (Originally published by Faber & Faber, 1954)
  • M. Niedermann, Phonétique historique du Latin (Klincksieck) 1997.

Greco-Roman Art

Overview

  • John Griffiths Pedley, Greek Art and Archaeology, Prentice Hall, 1998 [1993].
  • Nancy H. Ramage & Andrew Ramage, Roman Art, Prentice Hall, 2001 [1991].

Classical Mythology

COMPENDIA OF MYTHS

SCHOLARSHIP ON MYTHS

MAJOR SOURCES FOR MYTHS

Mythology permeates Greco-Roman culture.  As a result, many myths exist as isolated mentions in literature otherwise unconcerned with that particular story.  What follows are the major literary works and handbooks from antiquity which document most of what we know about ancient mythology.  NOTE:  This is not meant to be a comprehensive list of ancient mythographers or sources for mythology.

Greco-Roman Sexuality

GREEK SEXUALITY

ROMAN SEXUALITY

  • J. N. Adams, The Latin Sexual Vocabulary (Johns Hopkins University Press) 1982.
  • Judith P. Hallett and Marilyn B. Skinner, Roman Sexualities (Princeton University Press) 1997.
  • Bonnie MacLachlan, editor, Women in Ancient Rome:  A Sourcebook (Bloomsbury) 2013.
  • Holt Parker, “The Teratogenic Grid” in Roman Sexualities, ed. by Judith P. Hallett and Marilyn B. Skinner. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997. 47-65.
  • Amy Richlin, The Garden Priapus:  Sexuality and Aggression in Roman Humor, revised edition (Oxford University Press) 1992.
  • Craig A. Williams, Roman Homosexuality: Ideologies of Masculinity in Classical Antiquity (Oxford University Press) 1999.

GRECO-ROMAN SEXUALITY

  • Marilyn B. Skinner, Sexuality in Greek and Roman Culture (Blackwell) 2005.
  • Jennifer Larson, Greek and Roman Sexualities:  A Sourcebook (Bloomsbury) 2012.
  • Nancy Sorkin Rabinowitz and Lisa AuangerAmong Women: From the Homosocial to the Homoerotic in the Ancient World.
  • Martti Nissinen and Risto Uro editors, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity, 2008.

Literary Theory and the Classics

LITERARY THEORY AND CLASSICS

  • Penelope Murray and T. S. Dorsch, Classical Literary Criticism (Penguin Classics) 1965. (a source book)
  • Thomas A. Schmitz, Modern Literary Theory and Ancient Texts: An Introduction (Blackwell) 2007. (an overview of literary theory and its application to classical texts)

LITERARY THEORY GENERALLY

Ancient Philosophy

SCHOLARSHIP


SOURCES

  • PreSocratics 
  • Socrates (469 – 379) — teacher of Plato
  • Plato (428/7 – 348/7) — author of dialogues, founder of the Academy, teacher of Aristotle
  • Aristotle (384-322) — first scientist, interests run the gamut of philosophy, tutor to Alexander the Great
  • Cicero (106-43 BCE) — Roman orator, politician, and eclectic philosopher
  • Seneca (4 BCE-65 CE)
  • Epictetus (55 CE – 135) — Stoic philosopher
  • Plotinus (204-270) — Neoplatonic philosopher
  • Boethius (480-524/5)

SCHOOLS

Many but not all of the Greek philosophical schools trace their descent from Socrates of Athens (469-399 BCE).  While Socrates himself left no writings, his pupils left a number of accounts of his life and thought, most notably Plato and Xenophon.

  • Cynicism
    • Founded by Antisthenes, a student of Socrates, Cynicism found its fullest expression in the following generation.  Diogenes of Sinope, also known as Diogenes the Cynic (412-323 BCE) embodied the Cynic practice, which rejected all societal conventions in favor of an extreme understanding of living “naturally”, free of possessions and in harmony with bodily needs and desires.  The name “Cynic” comes from Greek κυνικός, meaning “dog-like”, for the public behavior of hard-line Cynics like Diogenes.
  • Epicureanism
    • The philosophy founded by Epicurus of Samos (341-270 BCE).  Epicurus set up the Epicurean school (which he called “The Garden”) in Athens around 306 BCE.  Epicureanism, like many philosophies, aims at maximizing happiness in life; it has been maligned since antiquity as a pleasure-seeking philosophy, despite its original adherents maintaining a modest and restrained lifestyle.
    • Epicureanism proper asserts that to maximize pleasure one must be moderate in one’s indulgences.  That is,  maximum pleasure is achieved by the total absence of pain (which includes the pain of unfulfilled desire).  For this to be possible, one must avoid desiring excessive pleasures, which will always remain unfulfilled.
    • Epicureanism ascribes to an atomic view of the universe:  all things that exist are compounds of atoms that are continuously coming together and drifting apart.  Gods do exist in the Epicurean philosophy, but they are wholly unconcerned with humanity.
  • Peripatetic School
    • Founded by Aristotle (384-322 BCE) in the Lyceum outside the city walls of Athens, the Peripatetic school concerned itself, as Aristotle himself did, with all branches of science.
  • Skepticism/Pyrrhonism/Academics
    • The skeptics were another group that claimed intellectual descent from Socrates, via Plato’s Academy.  The sect was first defined by Pyrrho of Elis (365-275 BCE), who held that absolute certainty is impossible in any question and therefore one cannot and should not assert that their are answers.  (The name “skeptic,” from σκεπτικός, means “inquirer,” “one who looks into things,” with the implication that inquiry is never finished and answers never arrived at.)  This view, which seeks philosophical tranquility from accepting the ultimate inability to know, derives from Socratic aporia.
  • Stoicism
    • Founded by Zeno of Citium (334 – 262 BCE) ca. 313 and named for the Stoa Poikile (Painted Colonnade) in Athens where he taught.  The Stoic positions were codified by Chrysippus (279-206 BCE)
    • Stoicism focused primarily on logic, physics, and ethics.
      • “Logic includes logic in the technical sense, in which the Stoics made great advances in what is now called the logic of propositions.  It also includes philosophy of language, including grammar and rhetoric, and epistemology.” (Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd edition, s.v. Stoicism, p. 1446)
      • Physics:  Stoicism is materialist and determinist:  “The world as a whole is made up of material objects and their interactions, which occur according to exception less lows, which are called ‘fate’.” (OCD, 3rd edition, ibid.)
      • Ethics:  “virtue is sufficient for happiness; nothing except virtue is good; emotions are always bad.” (OCD, 3rd edition, ibid.)
  • Neo-Platonism
    • Platonism as renewed by Plotinus (205 – 270 CE).  Plotinus, in his Enneads, reinterpreted Platonic philosophy on metaphysical and spiritual levels in a way that became the main force in Ancient Philosophy through the 6th c. and a strong influence on Christianity in both the West and the East.
    • In Neoplatonic thought, the first principle is The One, an existence or substance that exists beyond being (beyond “ousia“).  It is identical with The Good and otherwise ultimately unknowable.  The One projects Nous (intellect, self-thinking thought, rational structure), which in turn structures the material world.

Epigraphy

Epigraphic studies are a mess.  There are hugely many collections of inscriptions by region and a number of attempts at “complete” collections, all of which are outdated before they are published.  As a result, one has to be aware of a long list of places to look for inscriptions.  Below are some of the major and most easily-accessible databases of inscriptions.  But you can also go here for an extensive introduction to epigraphic studies, along with lists of copora.


GREEK EPIGRAPHY

  1. Packard Humanities Institute, Greek Epigraphy
    • A very large but non-comprehensive searchable database of Greek epigraphy
    • Note that, as with Latin inscriptions, you must be aware of common misspellings and pronunciations.
    • Greek has the  added difficulty that different cities used different versions of the Greek alphabet, so an eta in one dialect might be represented by an epsilon in another.  Likewise, some cities used alphabet characters that do not exist in the Attic alphabet (for example, the heta and the digamma).
  2. Inscriptiones Graecae
    • A massive collection of Greek inscriptions arranged into volumes organized by location.
    • May give more information about individual inscriptions than is found in the Packard Humanities Institute online searchable database.
  3.  Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum
    • Large, covering the entire Greek-speaking world, but incomplete.

LATIN EPIGRAPHY

  1. Clauss/Slaby Epigraphic Databank
    • A very large but non-comprehensive searchable database of Latin epigraphy
    • Note that epigraphical texts are not carefully edited like literary texts and were not necessarily written by the most literate members of society, so in order to search successfully, you will need to pay attention to common alternate spellings, misspellings, and pronunciations.  For example, “uxor” might also be spelled “uxsor”, “uxxor”, or “uxssor”.
  2. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinorum
    • A massive publication in multiple volumes of Latin inscriptions.  Volumes are separated according to region, and new “fascicles” (additions) are added on as more inscriptions are discovered.  This makes finding and citing inscriptions difficult.  The printed volumes, however, often have much more information about location, date, appearance (with drawings or sketches), etc. than the electronic database at Clauss-Slaby.
  3. Go here for a list of corpora of Roman inscriptions and their abbreviations (compiled by Clauss-Slaby).

GREEK AND LATIN

  1. Zeitschrift für Papyrlogie und Epigraphik (ZPE)
    • A German journal devoted to the publication of newly found inscriptions and papyrus fragments.

Ancient Medicine

SCHOLARSHIP


SOURCES

  • Hippocrates of Cos / Hippocratic Corpus
    • Hippocrates lived in the 5th century BCE and is the most famous of the ancient physicians, although it is uncertain whether any of the 60 or so surviving texts in the Hippocratic Corpus (so-called because its authorship is attributed to him) actually originated with him.
  • Nicander of Colophon (2nd c. BCE)
    • One of Nicander’s only two surviving works is a poem, Alexipharmaca (Aids against drugs), which details poisons and their antidotes in 630 hexameter lines.
  • Aulus Cornelius Celsus (fl. 14-37 CE)
    • Celsus wrote a series of handbooks (perhaps an encyclopedia), but only his eight books on medicine (De medicina) survive.
    • De medicina covers: “an historical introduction to Greek medicine and a discussion of origins of dietetics and medical theory (bk. 1, with proem) pathology and therapeutics (bk. 2), special treatments (bis. 3-4), drug-lore (bks. 5-6), surgery (bk. 7), and skeletal anatomy (bk. 8)” (Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd edition, s.v. Cornelius Celsus, p. 392)
  • Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40 CE – 90 CE)
    • Dioscorides wrote in Greek a handbook of pharmacology which we call De Materia Medica, but which he called περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς.  This work was the main source of knowledge about medicines for around 1500 years, though it is little known today.
  • Galen of Pergamum (129 CE – 199 or 216 CE)
    • Galen was a philosopher and physician who sought to understand the whole of medicine both in theory and in practice.
    • Galen wrote extensively on medicine and surgery to such an extent that his surviving texts (approximately 1/3 of what we think he wrote) account for about half of all surviving Greek literature

Ancient Religion

GREEK RELIGION


ROMAN RELIGION


ANCIENT RELIGION, GENERAL

  • Jon D. Mikalson, Ancient Greek Religion 2010 second edition
  • David G. Rice and John E. Stambaugh, Sources for the Study of Greek Religion Corrected Edition 2009
  • Barbette Stanley Spaeth, The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Mediterranean Religions, 2013
  • Sarah Iles Johnston, Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide, 2004
  • Kimberly B. Stratton and Dayna S. Kalleres Editors Daughters of Hecate: Women and Magic in the Ancient World Oxford University Press (2014)

Classical Archaeology

CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY

  • Christopher MeeGreek Archaeology: A Thematic Approach Wiley-Blackwell; 1 edition (2011).
  • Dr Yannis Galanakis editor, The Aegean World Kapon editions.
  • Charles Gates, Ancient Cities: the Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome, 2003.
  • Vasilleios Petrakos, Great Moments in Greek Archaeology, 2007.
  • John Haywood, The Encyclopedia of Ancient Civilizations of the Near East and Mediterranean.