Undergraduate Research Symposium

Abstracts - 1st Annual Undergraduate Research Symposium

Published student abstracts from the 1st Annual Undergraduate Research Symposium at Pacific Lutheran University, held on April 8, 2017.

*Abstracts listed in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author. Abstracts published as submitted by student author(s).
Author(s)TitleAbstract
Georgia AbramsColonization and Collaboration: Archaeological Research at the Roche Harbor Homestead, San Juan IslandA unique area of the Northwest, archaeology on San Juan Island has emphasized the pre-contact period but also has a fascinating record of the contact period and early Euroamerican colonization. San Juan Island history is often told from the perspective of Euroamerican entrepreneurs and large-scale farmers. Small-scale homesteaders, their wives, and children are rarely documented beyond the census. Based on research at 45SJ548 in the Roche Harbor area of San Juan Island during 2015 and 2016, this project explores the many ways that anthropological archaeology can benefit from collaboration with local populations, as well as the conclusions that came out of this research. Two excavation units at the historical homestead exhibited variance in temporal use. The domestic and agricultural activities associated with each excavation unit were analyzed using material culture and information from oral histories and documents. Data from cabin architectural features, nails, bricks, ceramics, and other objects provides information on change over time in the way that the site was used. This research provides a new perspective on the lives of small-scale farmers who lived away from town and also explores new research on intermarriage between Native American and Euroamerican communities.
Steven BarberThe effect of lower body fatigue on balance in young adultsHypothesis: We have hypothesized that lower body fatigue will alter balance in young adults.
Rationale: Balance is important in all activities for safe and efficient movement. It is essential for athletic performance and activities of daily living because it affects coordination, control, stability, and posture.
Methods: Twenty young participants (age: 22.9 ± 3.9) volunteered for a pretest-posttest designed experiment. The participants completed two balance tests (one on a non-compliant flat surface and one on a compliant 2-inch foam surface) before and after two Wingate Anaerobic tests (WaNt) with 1-minute rest between bouts. To assess the effect of fatigue on balance a triaxial accelerometer was placed at the L3 vertebrae. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to examine differences in vector magnitude between the pre and post fatiguing protocol.
Results: The average vector magnitude before and after the fatiguing protocol for the non-compliant surface was 15.3 ± 19.4 and 57.5 ± 38.3, respectively. There was a significant (p < 0.01) difference in average vector magnitude between pre and post fatigue on a non-compliant surface. On the compliant surface, the average vector magnitude before the WaNt was 46.3 ± 46.3 and after the WaNt was 96.7 ± 56.7. Furthermore, there was a significant (p < 0.01) difference between the control and fatigue when assessed on a compliant surface.
Conclusions: These results showed that acute lower body muscular fatigue alters balance in young adults. Moreover, the results indicate that accelerometers can be used in measuring balance after a fatiguing protocol.
Kimberly BelmesSunspot Decay Rate Correlations and Temperature RatiosSunspot activity is linked to solar activity. The more active the Sun is, the more solar wind it emits. This increases the chances of charged particles from the solar wind interfering with Earthly technologies, such as power grids, GPS systems, and satellites. Therefore, although advancing sunspot research is significant within itself, a better understanding of both the Sun and solar activity is essential to preventing electronic disruption. We present the results of our investigation into the relationship between sunspot area and decay rate, as well as decay rate and sunspot latitude. Knowing the rate of area change may reveal predictions regarding sunspot size and/or location. We also wanted to determine how accurately Earth-based observations can be used to estimate sunspot temperature. We found linear correlations between growth rate and area, as well as decay rate and area. We found neither a significant correlation between latitude and growth rate nor latitude and decay rate. We obtained accurate sunspot-to-photosphere temperature ratios.
Lindsey BenedictZetaproteobacteria Distribution and Diversity at Lō’ihi Seamount, Hawai’iEnvironmental microbes play a key role in biogeochemical cycling. At active hydrothermal vent sites, microbial communities are abundant but vary in species composition depending on which reduced chemicals are emitted in the vent fluid. A noteworthy example of such lithoautotrohic microbes are the Zetaproteobacteria, a class of iron oxidizing proteobacteria recently discovered in microbial mats at hydrothermal vents around Lō’ihi Seamount, off the coast of Hawai'i. The aim of this research project was to determine: the distribution of Zetaproteobacteria species endemic to Lō’ihi, if vent geochemistry correlates to microbial community structure and finally, if there is a correlation between Zetaproteobacteria species richness and bacterial mat morphology. Bacterial species were identified using high throughput sequencing of the small subunit of the ribosomal gene, a commonly used species marker gene, and mothur, an open source bioinformatics program. Analysis of the generated species distribution showed no correlation between Zetaproteobacteria species and site location except in the areas with the highest overall diversity (FeMO Deep) and the lowest overall diversity (PV340). From this information, we can conclude that mat morphology and vent geochemistry are likely the more influential factors in determining evolutionary relationships between Zetaproteobacteria species. To confirm this assessment, R-based statistical analysis of Zetaproteobacteria species distribution against geochemical data is currently being performed. Additionally, continued bacterial mat sampling should be undertaken to collect more information about Zetaproteobacteria distribution and characteristics.
Genevieve Brandt, Katie Frank, Christine Elsik, and Darren HagenNovel A-to-I RNA Editing Sites in the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)RNA editing is a post-transcriptional mechanism that modifies primary RNA transcripts through the insertion, substitution, or deletion of particular bases, resulting in a diversification of gene products. The most common type of RNA editing among metazoans is adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing. Enzymes known as adenosine deaminases (ADARs) catalyze this reaction by converting adenosines in RNA transcripts to inosines, which are detected as guanosines during translation by the ribosome. A-to-I RNA editing has been shown to play important roles in mammals, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and leaf-cutting ants (Acromyrmex echinatior), affecting behavior and neural function. Honey bees (Apis mellifera), like leaf-cutting ants, are a eusocial insect species belonging to the order Hymenoptera and are an important model for social behavior. In this study, our goal was to identify genes in the honey bee genome that undergo A-to-I RNA editing and to understand the function of those edited genes. Using publicly available RNAseq data from brain tissues of six worker bees we developed a pipeline to analyze A-to-I RNA editing in honey bee. After removing known honey bee single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and SNPs passed on to the six individuals by their parents, we applied variant frequency filters to eliminate remaining SNPs. We report 326 A-to-I editing sites, which contributes to 259 new sites after removing 67 editing sites that overlap with unpublished A-to-I editing honey bee data. The 326 editing sites we discovered are in 157 genes, with 46% of the genes containing more than one editing site.
Amelia BrummelCrisis at Europe's Borders: How the Dublin System Affects Refugee Rights and Well-Being Relative to Alternative Refugee Allocation PolicyCurrently, Europe is undergoing a migrant crisis. With thousands of refugees fleeing war-torn regions in the Middle East and Northern Africa, states in the European Union are tasked with the responsibility of taking in these migrants. While current refugee allocation policy falls under the umbrella of the Dublin System, debate over the efficacy of the Dublin System has recently come into question within study of forced migration. This research aims to address how the Dublin System affects both the basic human rights and well-being of incoming refugees while asking; does the Dublin System need to be replaced with an alternative system of migrant allocation? Additionally, this research aims to expand upon possible alternatives to the Dublin System, chiefly considering how the "Green Alternative" approach to refugee allocation might impact refugees fleeing to the EU. Empirical study of refugees entering and resettling in the European Union and study of progressive refugee regimes across the international sphere, coupled with theoretical analysis of how the Dublin System meets standards for refugees set out by supranational organizations, provides the basis for this research.
Morgan CommanderImagery as a Mental Skills Tool for Collegiate SwimmersAthletes commonly use imagery to practice sport and mental skills without physically training or being in a competitive environment. Research shows that the brain interprets images as the same as the actual physical situation (Kilintari, 2016; Frolov, 2016; Jeannerod, 1994). Imagery is the use
of one's senses to create an experience in the mind that is vivid, controllable, and polysensory for improved self-confidence, motivation, focus and attentional control, or decreased anxiety, to name a few. Many athletes use imagery using an internal or external perspective to regulate emotions and thoughts in preparation for competition, before or after competition, during practice and during injury rehabilitation (Thomas, 2007; Munroe, 2000).  In order to create an effective tool for other PLU swimmers to use, we compiled many clips of Olympic swimmers, videos of swimming technique on YouTube, and interviews with athletes and professionals who have used imagery to improve focus and prepare for competition. We also filmed ourselves swimming in the PLU pool so that we could use footage that could be more applicable to a PLU swimmer. Footage from previous competitions that our team had competed in were used during an audio guided imagery from USA Swimming's Make a Splash manager Kim O'Shea's script for the perfect race. The video incorporated and visually represented research and theoretical explanations into an accessible medium. The purpose of this project was to create an evidence-based, theoretically grounded mental skills training tool to teach swimmers on Pacific Lutheran University's men's and women's swim teams about using mental imagery to improve athletic performance.
Olivia CookDog Whistle Politics in the 2012 and 2014 Elections: A Shift From Implicit to Explicit Racism in the 2016 Elections and the Social and Political Implications that FollowIn 2014, law professor and author Ian Haney Lopez published a widely praised and referenced book called Dog Whistle Politics: How Coded Racial Appeals Have Reinvented Racism and Wrecked the Middle Class. Lopez's work created a baseline definition of dog whistle politics that political scientists have used to analyze racial appeals hidden in conversations about race. Lopez's overarching description of dog whistle is "speaking in code to target an audience," but he understands its prevalence in the political realm as "coded talk centered on race" through racial appeals (Lopez 4). Dog whistle politics is subtle enough that many politicians employing this rhetorical strategy circumnavigate using blatant racism by re-naming racially inspired policy. While racial codes have been present in the political arena for decades, understanding their use in both the 2012 and 2016 elections reveals differences in how these elections addressed race. In the 2012 Republican election campaigns, Mitt Romney and Newt Gingrich relied on implicit racism based on economic policy, but Republican Donald Trump based his 2016 campaign on explicit racism. I explore racial codes in both election campaigns through Lopez's lens, as well as through an in-depth application of Public Broadcasting Corporation's documentary Race 2012. These concepts are significant because of their ominous implications for American society that extend beyond the end of campaign season and the persistent violence against people of color racial rhetoric has inspired.
Ashley CorrDemonic Familiars Subverting the Familial NormativityThroughout Shakespeare's play Macbeth, witches, often accompanied by animals, emanate evil, tampering with daily life. The Wyrd sisters, the witches in Macbeth, menacingly declare in the play, "Fair is foul and foul is fair." The foulness of the witches, as well as the creatures such as cats, rats and toads, that respond to their commands (known as familiars) try to taint that which is fair. Exploring a historical witch-hunting guide and a popular masque of the time, instances of animals coinciding with the supernatural are abundant. From the Wyrd sisters' magical brew filled with bizarre animal components, to the musings of a beetle's hum or the flight of a bat, animals have significant influence on the fate and characters throughout Macbeth. After studying the historical documents as well as the words of the play itself, it becomes clearer that the influence of these familiars is particularly to subvert normal elements of daily life and attack what is fair. Therefore, the presence of these familiars in Macbeth carry out the demonic agenda of the witches, which seeks to undermine the characters' lives and turn their fates to the hands of the Devil.
Michael J. DiambriAllen Ginsberg's Tools of Dissent: Substance Usage, Queer Sexuality, and Anti-CapitalismPost-WWII America was heavily concerned with the taboo: the actions and ideas proscribed by society as deviant and detrimental. As taboo practices were policed and their practitioners shamed, rigid norms were instilled in American culture by way of Christian and capitalist hegemony. By a select few subcultures, deviance was embraced in the face of cultural conformity. The Beat Generation was perhaps the pinnacle example of embracing deviance during this period known for its social normativity. This group of avant-garde writers and artists mindfully embraced taboo practices to emphasize the flaws in the machine-like systems that were created a country of zombie-like consumerists. For example, many members of the Beat Generation-in both their art and their lives-challenged common notions of capitalist consumerism, monogamous- heteronormativity, and the dangers of substance usage. Each of these examples are heavily written about in Allen Ginsberg's legendary poetry collection, Howl and Other Poems, published in 1956. This research presentation asserts Allen Ginsberg's poetic writings about anti-capitalism, sexual liberation, and substance usage as exemplifying the manner in which these taboo subjects became historical motifs crystallized in America's post-WWII culture of dissent. Additionally, this presentation brings together a wide breadth of primary and secondary sources to assert a more nuanced understanding of Howl and Other Poems as well as the cultural legacy of Allen Ginsberg and the Beat Generation. Moreover, I argue that Ginsberg's poetry articulated that embracing the taboo was a sensible and deeply sensual mode of marking oneself as a dissenter.
Ciara FlaneryLigand Exchange with Nanocrystals as Dyes for Luminescent Solar ConcentratorsSolar energy technology is important to society because it harnesses a renewable energy source, sunlight. One application that utilizes solar energy is a Luminescent Solar Concentrator. LSCs are made up of a polymer matrix with a nanocrystal dye that is attached to the polymer matrix using ligands. We synthesized and attached ligands to nanocrystals which will be used as a dye for LSCs, in collaboration with other groups at Western Washington University, University of Puget Sound and George Fox University to create LSCs. We synthesized cadmium selenide nanocrystal cores with cadmium sulfide spherical and rod shells and manganese doped zinc selenide nanocrystal cores with zinc sulfide spherical and rod shells. The ligands on CdSe/CdS dots in rod were exchanged with oleic acid and we used NMR and IR to characterize the degree of exchange and found that oleic acid bound well to the CdSe/CdS dots in rod. In the future we plan to perform ligand exchange with our collaborators carboxylic acid ligands to see if our nanocrystals will bind to their ligands which will attach to the LSC.

Paris M. FranklinMusical Theatre's Africa: Perceptions of Northern Uganda in "The Book of Mormon"Western attitudes about Africa are often created and reinforced by popular modes of entertainment. Many forms of popular culture create inaccurate representations of Africa. One example is the Broadway musical "The Book of Mormon." While the show is intended to be a satire about attitudes of intolerance in Western societies, the work's recent success serves as an example of how popular culture can perpetuate false assumptions about faraway places such as Uganda. This misinformation about Uganda, as well as Africa as a whole, can be dangerous in perpetuating stereotypes and continuing the "white savior complex" that is often associated with the continent. In the show, authors Trey Parker and Matt Stone paint a scene of savage-like Africans who are unable to help themselves until a pair of American Mormon missionaries arrive to the fictional Ugandan village. Drawing from other anthropological critiques of the near dehumanization of Africans in media, I argue that the widespread success of the musical is creating harmful Western perceptions about the largest landmass on earth. "The Book of Mormon" is no stranger to academic analysis due to its interpretation of the Mormon religion, but it has yet to be explored through an anthropological lens. Through analysis of the show's book (script) and lyrics, I will explore how the authors make generalizations about the continent and reinforce intervention philosophy. Additionally, I will explore how the critical acclaim of productions such as "The Book of Mormon" allows audiences to justify entertainment that may otherwise be perceived as racist.
Amanda Fretland-ThomasAttention Abilities of the MindElectroencephalograms (EEGs) are a non-invasive way to study neural mechanisms in the brain. The P3 wave is one of many neural signatures that can be measured with an EEG and is most commonly elicited using an "oddball" paradigm. An oddball paradigm is a performance task in which a frequent stimulus is presented with an occasional infrequent stimulus (oddball), the infrequent stimulus elicits the P3 wave. In this study, participants will watch a combination of letters and numbers presenting on a computer screen. In task two, participants actively respond using a button pad that records response times, correct and incorrect responses. For example, participants may be instructed to push a button when they see a vowel paired with an even number. The third task adds another rule to task two where participants will be instructed to push one button when they see a vowel paired with an even number or press another button when they see a consonant paired with an odd number but not if the letter is capitalized. The main purpose of this study is to better understand the neural and behavioral mechanisms of attention. Specifically, the study intends to examine how neural and behavioral mechanisms are affected as task difficulty increases. Preliminary results should show, as task difficulty increases, a greater P3 wave is elicited because of the increased attention demands. Second, results of the behavioral component will show that reaction times will be slower and probability of mistakes increases as task difficulty increases.
Katie GardinerTwo Prodrug Strategies for the Delivery of Carboxylic Acid-Containing Pharmaceuticals by a Retro-Diels-Alder ReactionNon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) were tested for their use as dienophiles in Diels-Alder reactions, with the ultimate goal being to create a long-acting drug delivery system that would use a retro-Diels-Alder mechanism. NSAIDS used included ibuprofen and bufexamac, the latter used as a model. The first strategy of using ?-acyloxynitroso species was unsuccessful at reacting with the selected dienes, 1,3-cyclohexadiene and cyclypentadiene, regardless of which NSAID species was used as the carboxylic acid derivative. The second strategy of using hydroxamic acid derivatives of the NSAIDS was more successful. Diels-Alder adducts between bufexamac and 1,3-cyclohexadiene were formed (75%) as well as with cyclopentadiene (19%). Lower yields were gained with ibuproxam (derived from ibuprofen) reactions with 1,3-cyclohexadiene and cyclopentadiene (trace amounts and 18% respectively). This implies that ibuprofen is not as viable an option in the goal of delivering these pharmaceuticals via long-acting injectable means. Further work can then look into other NSAIDS such as aspirin or naproxen.
Kelsie Green and Jennifer BoldraGuided Imagery for ACL Injury RehabilitationGuided Imagery for ACL Rehabilitation

By: Kelsie Green and Jennifer Boldra
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Colleen Hacker

Psychological skills are found to work in the rehabilitation of injuries, allowing the athlete to decrease stress and improve their mindset through healing imagery and self-talk (Hamson-Utley, Martin & Walters 2008). Application of guided imagery throughout the rehabilitation process has shown to decrease recovery time and increase adherence to the rehabilitation program (Williams & Krane, 2015). The healing imagery in this video aimed to connect clients to their own healing and rehabilitation. The rationale for developing this imagery video was to target active populations that recently suffered an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear and chose surgery as a means of repair. This tool was selectively designed to show visualizations of how the injury occurs, explain the mechanism of injury, show the surgical process of repair, a guided imagery section and videos of rehabilitation. The video concluded with athletes returning to their sport. For each section, primary research was used to find videos that demonstrate emotive and healing imagery, and connect the relationship between imagery and rehabilitation. Focusing on mastery and emotive imagery throughout our mental skills tool serves the purpose of helping the patient foster motivation for rehabilitation, build confidence in their progress, and feel secure that rehabilitation will be successful (Williams & Krane, 2015). Increased confidence and motivation of a rehabilitation program provides higher rates of adherence to the protocol (Williams & Krane, 2015). With lack of adherence being a major concern in rehabilitation, our guided imagery mental skills tool would be a positive addition to a rehabilitation program.
Amber HaileyPollinators are less abundant in forest communities compared to meadow communities while flowering plants appear to increase in richness as elevation increases along the C. Hart Merriam gradient in the San Francisco PeaksWe studied how flowering plants and their insect pollinators varied in species composition and abundance along three life zones and between meadows and forests along the C. Hart Merriam elevation gradient in the San Francisco Peaks of northern Arizona. Replacing time with space, elevation can be used as a model for climate change to understand how these communities will vary and have to adapt in different life zones. Insects observed pollinating were collected in varying life zones and habitats, and the plants they were collected off of were documented. Changes between two habitat types (meadow and forest) in three different life zones (ponderosa pine, mixed conifer, spruce-fir) in abundances of bees, flies, and flowers, as well as species richness of bees, flies, and flowering plants were studied. Relationships between specific plants species and morpho-species of pollinators were also studied. Three patterns were revealed. 1) Pollinator communities are less abundant in forests than meadows. 2) Plant species richness appears to increase along the elevation gradient. 3) Erigeron divergens harbors a great amount of insect diversity. Our study suggests there are more pollinators passing through in forested areas than there are insects actually pollinating flowers in these habitats, that most plant-host associations occur in meadows, and that plant community diversity may increase as elevation increases. These results stress the importance of habitat type in respect to abundance of individual pollinators and that individual plant species in communities can be cornerstones for the diversity of insects in ecosystems. Also, plant data supports that differing climates along elevation gradients support different communities, which may model how communities will shift as climate change occurs.
Yasmine HaroThe Marginalization of American Deserters in World War IIThis historical research project takes up the little-studied topic of desertion during wartime by U.S. soldiers. In particular, it investigates social attitudes about deserters held by the U.S. public. During World War II, American soldiers who deserted from the front in Europe were ostracized by American society due to the militarization of the country at the time. However, I argue that on ethical grounds American deserters should not be considered cowards or traitors, because they were drafted into military service and did not volunteer. I make this argument based not on modern notions of military service and patriotism, but on American cultural values active in the 1940s and 1950s. Three case studies are used to explore this topic. The first introduces Eddie Slovik, the only U.S. solider between the Civil War and the end of World War II to be executed for the action of deserting. The second case study examines American deserters in occupied Italy. During this time, U.S. soldiers were notorious for committing crimes and running black market operations in major Italian cities. In this case study, I argue that the deserters who did engage in this activity contributed significantly to pushing American society to marginalize deserters as a whole. The final case study examines Wayne Powers, an American soldier who deserted his regiment and was found thirteen years later with five children and a wife in France.

Jesse HerinckxShadowland; Singing in the Starlight TonightThis presentation will feature three excerpts from my creative nonfiction capstone piece, Shadowland; Singing in the Starlite Tonight. Since 2012, I have been a participant of the Starlite songwriter open mic, held Tuesday evenings at Shadowland, a bar in West Seattle. Through these recollections, I explore how I first walked through the door of Shadowland as an individual with my own original songs, but have since grown with these valued friends in a family-like bond through musical collaboration. This project therefore recounts my introduction into the Seattle music community, examining the bands, recordings, and stage blunders which followed. Included in this work are original lyrics as well as those of other artists. For the presentation of this piece, I incorporate singing and acoustic guitar to perform said lyrics. The work of David Foster Wallace was a primary influence for this capstone project, as reflected by my use of footnotes throughout, to provide an alternative narrative. To help portray these footnotes when presenting, I will employ digital slides. With these elements, this piece portrays the initial aspirations I brought to Shadowland of being a "rocker," and how the Starlite open mic has since altered my perception of musical success, thanks in large part to this treasured gathering of companions.
Alexandria Higgins, Mikaela Haglund, and Cassandra IngramImpact of Vessel Traffic on Hawaiian Humpback BehaviorThe purpose of this research study was to further investigate the impact of vessel traffic on the behavior of the Hawaiian humpback whale. We hypothesized that when a boat is within a half mile of a focal pod, there will be an increase in percentage of down time and after the boat has left the one mile radius the overall down time will decrease significantly. This study was conducted at two research sites in Maui, Hawaii over a three week period. This study was conducted using binoculars and a theodolite. These tools recorded whale behavior and determined the whales exact coordinates. The same methods were used for tracking the boats in order to find their coordinates. The results showed that during the before boat period, there was a 75.99 percent downtime, a 84.29 percent downtime during the boat period and during the after boat period there was a 59.0 percent downtime. The results supported that vessel traffic disrupts the behavior of the Hawaiian humpback whales. These findings are important for furthering knowledge in how to preserve and protect threatened and endangered species.
Laura HillisThe Influence and Limitations of Community Participation in Northern Saskatchewan Uranium MiningThis paper is based on ethnographic research that focuses on the intersection of mega-resource extraction and local community participation at uranium mines in Northern Saskatchewan. While Indigenous populations are commonly assumed to resist and delay mining projects, Anthropological and Environmental Studies literature has highlighted the possibilities for corporate-community partnerships to effectively build trust between stakeholders and resolve conflicts in a mining economy. There is little ethnographic information regarding how participants understand the purpose of these partnerships, which can contribute to critical theories of participation and improve the nature of such partnerships. With funding from a Wang Center Student Research Grant, I spent a month in La Ronge, Saskatchewan, investigating the Northern Saskatchewan Environmental Quality Committee (NSEQC), which is a provincially funded effort to improve communication between Northern Saskatchewan communities, mining corporations, and the government. Through archival research and interviews, I studied the role and influence of this committee that has been active for over twenty years and is unique in its broad community participation and close cooperation with government and industry. My paper discusses the NSEQC’s influence in reducing community-level fear and concern surrounding uranium mining as well the practical and political limitations of its mandate. Furthermore, I consider the strong but varied government, corporate, and community interests in this committee. This paper provides ethnographic basis for the complex interests involved in this model of mining partnerships, which will expand existing theories of community participation and ultimately improve mining projects in Indigenous regions worldwide.
Emma HolmMount Rainier's Oldest Formed Artifact: Temporally Extending Human Alpine Occupation in the Pacific NorthwestUntil the last twenty years, many archaeologists did not think early prehistoric humans used alpine environments in the Pacific Northwest. Regardless of recent finds indicating that they did use these environments, understanding of the extent and nature of this use remains ambiguous. Therefore, it is essential to further address human occupation at high altitudes to more holistically understand broad settlement patterns in the region. In 2007, excavations at the Buck Lake open-air site in Mount Rainier National Park revealed a reworked stone tool fragment beneath the 8,600 B. P. Mount Mazama volcanic ash layer, making this tool fragment the Park's oldest formed artifact. Not only did this discovery extend known human occupation of alpine settings at Mount Rainier, it also challenged existing notions about the significance of these environments for Early Holocene foragers. This presentation examines the significance of this tool fragment and other associated artifacts while considering their implications for early alpine exploitation of this site.
Anna HurdWhat are the Effects of Dietary Phytoestrogens on Cancer?Phytoestrogens are plant derived hormones that are similar to estrogen. Humans cannot synthesize them and therefore, they must be ingested. They can both mimic the functions of estrogen and function directly against estrogen due to its unique structure. The two main classifications of phytoestrogens are isoflavones and lignans. Isoflavones encompass soy beans and soy products while lignans are more of the fiber-rich foods including legumes, beans, whole grains, flaxseeds and many more foods. The countries that consume the highest amounts of phytoestrogens are also the countries with the lowest rates of cancer. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the effects of dietary phytoestrogens on cancer. Because phytoestrogens can simulate estrogens as well as act anti-estrogenically, they can both stimulate cancerous cell growth as well as inhibit cancerous cell growth. An examination of primary research suggests that at lower concentrations of dietary phytoestrogens there is tumor cell growth stimulation while at higher concentrations there is tumor cell growth inhibition. This is promising for the direction of cancer treatments because it may be possible to contribute to the prevention and/ or treatment of cancer with food.
Brandon S. JamisonChina's Environmental Ideological DevelopmentHow has China's ideology surrounding the environment developed? What barriers to sustainable development are a result of this schema? These are the guiding questions for this paper in which I argue that China's environmental ideology has been shaped by the Maoist period, particularly the Great Leap Forward, and can still be seen today nearly 60 years later. Based on Marxist materiality theory, Mao used the Great Leap Forward as a way to economically revolutionize China through the destruction and changing of the natural world. This established the ideology that economic development comes before environmental development. This can be seen through official governmental stances at different UN conferences and can be seen at the individual level through mass surveys throughout the 1990s. The rationale that economic development comes before environmental has created two problems. First, China has established governmental agencies as reactions to the environment which created an ill-defined structure that results in failed environmental projects. The second is a lack of communication between the government and locals that often results in the economic impoverishment of locals in areas around environmental projects.
Gabrielle E. Kamm and Ashlee McGovernModifying carbon electrodes to behave like precious metalsThe rates of heterogeneous electrochemical reactions are governed, in part, by the degree of similarity between the potential energies of any electron donor-acceptor pair as well by the mechanism through which charge transfers between this pair at the electrode interface. Redox reactions tend to occur more rapidly and efficiently at noble metal electrodes, which is one reason why platinum electrodes commonly demonstrate lower overpotentials in electroanalytical measurements than lower-cost, energy-relevant electrode materials, such as carbon. In this study, we evaluate the electrochemical effect of modifying the surface of graphitic carbon electrodes with nanoscopic, conformal, electrolessly deposited ruthenia (RuO2). Because ruthenia is a platinum-group metal oxide that exhibits metallic conductivity, and was previously shown in nonaqueous electrolytes to mimic the fast electron-transfer character of platinum [1], it should serve to enhance the electrochemical electron-transfer kinetics of the underlying carbon electrode. The carbon electrodes in this study were prepared by chemical vapor deposition and the ruthenia colloids were deposited from nonaqueous solutions of ruthenium tetroxide gradually decomposed at <0°C. These samples were calcined at various temperatures [T] up to 250°C in order to evaluate the increasing degree of crystallographic order in the as-deposited X-ray amorphous ruthenia on electrochemical reversibility. The response inner-sphere or outer-sphere redox probes at the RuO2@C[T] series was measured using cyclic voltammetry at scan rates between 5-10,000 mV s-1. In this poster, we will discuss our findings and the implications that they have for carbon-based electrodes in energy-relevant devices.
Kirsten Kenny, Ingrid Ericksen, Lisa Hartwell, Bianca Lindberg, and Sarah HashmanMapping of Exercise Programs for Older Adults in Pierce CountyResearch Problem: Advancing age is associated with a number of physiological changes that can be detrimental to both health and functionality. The main emphasis of the field of Kinesiology is the importance of remaining physically active through the lifespan. The benefits of regular physical activity on health, fall prevention, and quality of life are widely recognized. Despite its importance, there can be obstacles in place, which make it difficult for people to have access to physical activity and health information. The objective of this research project was to showcase various exercise programs for older adults.
Research Method: Through phone interviews and website exploration, data was gathered on program types, locations, pricing, and the type of exercise such as aerobic or cardio-style workout. All data was compiled into a master spreadsheet which was programmed into an interactive map, accessible via Google.
Results: Over fifty programs were reviewed and categorized based on previously mentioned criteria and are now available to be used by Pierce County residents. Our research shows that there are numerous exercise programs available in the Pierce County.
Conclusions: Through the use of the interactive map, more people will have access to information on fitness programs which can add to a person's overall health and well-being. This research can be extrapolated to include the entire state of Washington and even the nation.
Annalise KingImages of WitchcraftImagery holds great power throughout Shakespeare's Macbeth, particularly in association with Lady Macbeth and the three witches. Critics have argued that witchcraft and widespread fear and respect for the supernatural in the Jacobean era allowed women to gain power and influence through disruption of traditional gender hierarchies. In addition to gender role disruption through behavior, Shakespeare's witches and Lady Macbeth disturb binaries through their physical bodies to gain agency. This essay will examine the role that powerful imagery plays in granting agency to the witches and to Lady Macbeth, consulting resources on gender and Jacobean witchcraft, images in witchcraft and in Macbeth, and a medieval guide to witch-hunting. Through manipulation of the societal power of imagery in rhetoric, the witches and Lady Macbeth subvert the traditional passive role of women, gaining power and agency in the play.
Ellie LappProducer-Tourist Relationships, Contested Meanings, and Power in the Production and Consumption of Zapotec WeavingsTeotitlan del Valle, a small town tucked in the mountains of Oaxaca, Mexico, has an unofficial town slogan that reads: "behind every door, you will find a loom." Teotitlan is famous for its Zapotec-style woven wool rugs, called tapetes, that are the economic driving force of this town and whose production is the main source of income for many of its residents. Drawing from an ethnographic study conducted over the course of three months, this presentation delves into the complex economic and social processes at play in the production and consumption of "traditional" weaved textiles made in Teotitlan del Valle and neighboring town of San Miguel del Valle. Specifically, I focus on the relationships between these two towns and the dynamics between individual producers and the tourists to whom they sell tapetes. I investigate how traditional indigeneity is represented (and sometimes invented) through textile design and production for tourists, as well as the distinct meanings that indigenous producers and Western tourists assign to these textiles. This project seeks to complicate simplistic narratives of globalization and tourism as "good" or "bad," and instead investigate the complexities of tourist-producer interactions. It draws upon anthropological methods and concepts including economic anthropology, anthropological study of tourism, and the contested dichotomy between tradition and modernity. Information was gathered through interviews with weavers in Teotitlan and San Miguel, participant observation on artisan-focused tours organized through a micro-finance organization, and research in museums and archives of Oaxaca.
Megan LongstaffNanomorphology of novel synthesized diblock copolymers with and without lithium salt characterized by atomic force microscopyNovel diblock copolymers were synthesized by a ring-opening metathesis polymerization for use as solid polymer electrolytes in lithium ion batteries. The polymers were made to decouple the segmental motion from ionic conductivity with a bulky backbone to make safer batteries by also preventing dendrite formation in the electrolyte. These polymers have varying percent compositions and molecular weights of two blocks that share an identical backbone. One monomer has a phenyl group resulting in a block with a higher modulus and the other has an oligomeric ethylene oxide (EO) chain for ionic conductivity. Atomic force microscopy was used to study the nanomorphology of the neat diblocks and with added bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt. The ordering of the polymer with only spin coating was poor, but solvent vapor annealing induced and reinforced order throughout the sample. Salt improved the ordering and showed similar increased order as that from solvent vapor annealing. Samples with dissolved salt and solvent annealing were found to preserve order or induce longer range ordering. Each composition of polymer showed unique results and ordering. Grazing-incidence x-ray scattering was performed to compare to the surface topography. Testing the conductivity is the next step in determining the effectiveness of the polymers as solid polymer electrolytes.
Matthew MacfarlaneA Historical and Economic Examination of the Software Industry from 1977-1994This project illustrates the importance of technical innovation in the creation of PC software from 1977 to 1994, a time of sustained growth and change in the global software industry. In this era "before the Internet", visionary start-ups such as MicroPro, Lotus 1-2-3, VisiCorp, and Microsoft created software for the first home personal computers. What becomes clear after an analysis of these companies and their primary products is that although they were competitors they were also working together to create an industry that was profitable, durable, and designed for financial success over the long term. Common caricatures of tinkerers in garages and big personalities locked in fierce competition are only partially accurate images of software pioneers. Instead, it was the drive to make better products for consumers that fueled the success of early software companies, especially those located in the supportive business communities of Massachusetts, Silicon Valley, and the Pacific Northwest. This project illustrates the importance of software companies being multi-dimensional in their long-term approach to product development, and it highlights the consumer-first model that many pioneers employed as they built early business software such as spreadsheets and word processors. This research was supported by a Benson Family Summer Research Fellowship.
Sophia MahrPreventing Unethical Human Medical Studies: Investigating the Spectrum through Three Case StudiesThis research project explores the phenomenon of unethical human medical experimentation. The study develops by identifying three essential qualities within all medical research coercion: perpetrating mindsets, fueling systems, and complex protections. Thus, I establish how these aspects of medical oppression reinforce this non-consensual crime against humanity. The paper draws from three empirical cases to effectively argue the aforementioned themes as the axes of analysis to recognize, prevent, and combat this trend. The era of Nazi medical experiments and concentration camp doctors, the forty-year long "Tuskegee Syphilis Study", and the ongoing medical discrimination and coerced research of LGBTQ+ individuals are presented to exhibit these characteristics. Although distinct narratives, they showcase the individual mindsets, motives, and beliefs of perpetrators, the oppressive social systems (like racism) driving harmful medical studies, and the progression of complex protections and their failings. While presenting my research, I will draw attention to the fact that the majority of people coerced into medical experimentation are marginalized individuals. To counter this trend, I suggest habits and practices of inquiry that can be used to promote agency and advocacy. The research project's larger implications beyond identifying and stopping these occurrences question the efficiency of institutions attempting to advance bioethics as well as universal human rights. Because oppressed, inadequately protected groups are exposed to adverse power structures in many human rights violations, it is imperative to create and enforce official guidelines on the notion of consent.
Barbara MillwardOnline Dating: Sexual Victimization Prevalence and ImpactsOnline dating is becoming increasingly popular with the rise of the internet (Vanderweerd, Myers, Coulter, Yalcina, & Corvin, 2016). According to the Pew Research Center (2015) 15% of adults in the U.S. have used an online dating site. Given high rates of sexual victimization in various types of romantic relationships and growing numbers of dating site users, investigation into patterns of interactions between users is warranted. A related behavior, "sexting", may reveal clues about possible harms that might occur in online dating communication and interactions. It has been shown that coerced sharing of sexual material "sexting" increases the risk of physical dating victimization (Morelli, Bianchi, Baiocco, Pezzuti, & Chirumbolo, 2016). Sexting can be one of many forms of sexual victimization, which prompted curiosity into any prevalence between online dating and sexual victimization. However, relatively little information is available on the risk of sexual victimization sometimes accompanying online dating. This research aims to examine the prevalence of sexual victimization and its psychological impact on individuals who have used online dating sites. Data collection and analysis will be completed prior to the research symposium. Results will be included in the presentation. Recruitment will involve advertisements, and participants will complete an online survey about their online dating habits and possible experiences of victimization and perpetration. This research has far reaching implications because it gathers important information not yet known about a growing population. The data will also allow for a targeted prevention and intervention for sexual victimization within the online dating community.
Elliott PetersonTowards the Synthesis of a Dicavitand Template for Dimeric Template-Assembled Synthetic Proteins (TASPs)Previous work on template-assembled synthetic protein (TASP) systems has involved monomer-dimer equilibria between two cavitand templates with attached polypeptides. Here we report the synthetic steps towards creating a novel dicavitand for use in a covalently-bound dimeric TASP. Previously-published propanol-footed cavitand syntheses were optimized to provide a 67% overall yield over three steps. After functionalization of the pendant feet to the tetraaldehyde, the lower ring is projected to be assembled by an intramolecular condensation introducing resorcinol under acidic conditions. The aryl groups of this new lower ring can then be further functionalized by electrophilic bromination and the formation of a rigid methylene acetal rim. With the full assembly of the dicavitand template, the attachment of eight polypeptides is projected to proceed via a SN2 conjugation step following the conversion of the octabromocavitand into an octathiol polynucleophile. The conformations and catalytic potential of the new polypeptide assembly as a semisynthetic enzyme mimic will then be investigated.
Charlene QuachPhở Isn’t Far from Poetry: Memoir of the Restaurant’s DaughterI will present two excerpts from my creative nonfiction capstone project, Phở Isn’t Far from Poetry: Memoir of the Restaurant’s Daughter, which focuses on my childhood experiences in my family’s Vietnamese Phở restaurant that was the center of our family life for two decades. Some themes I touch upon include the struggles of Vietnamese refugees to achieve the American Dream, the experience of being a First Generation American, and how that impacts the role and responsibilities of a daughter. In one excerpt, which is a lyric essay, I compare the elements of poetry to that of a popular Vietnamese noodle soup dish. I draw upon Claudia Rankine’s book of prose poetry, Citizen, for lyrical inspiration while weaving personal story and in-depth insight about the craft and skill needed to make phở, and how it takes as much expertise as writing a good poem. Another personal essay that influenced my memoir is Ira Sukrungruang’s “Abridged Immigrant Narrative”. As an immigrant’s daughter, I felt many of the themes that Sukrungruang highlights relate to various parts of my identity and my personal experiences with my family. This restaurant that seemed so prosaic to me somehow became my poetic and lyrical muse.
Antonio SablanAt the Crossroads: Racial Justice Activism and Intersectionality in the Era of Black Lives MatterDuring a period of extreme divisiveness in the United States, there has been a dramatic spike in activism. Academic research pertaining to activism has been well represented in the existing literature. However, this paper addresses the connection between intersectionality and racial justice activism in social science research. Specifically, this research addresses the question "How do leaders in the racial justice movement incorporate intersectionality in their activism?" The research team interviewed thirty racial justice activists to understand the role that intersectionality plays in racial justice activism. Through the interview process, the researchers discovered that intersectionality, while important and critical to the success of social movements, was not always at the forefront of the activists' work. Rather, activists reported that focusing on one issue at a time was the best way to create meaningful social change. However, it is important to note that respondents identified intersectionality as being critical to the work that they do. Activists also reported that their action began with advocating for identities with which they closely identified. This initial action served as the impetus for respondents to get involved with other forms of activism, for other identities. Most respondents agreed that the alleviation of any oppression is ultimately for the benefit of all people, including those without marginalized identities. The key to meaningful social change is to participate in activism that is particularly poignant to the activist.
Adrienne Scarcella and Rebecca CrustRegional Survey of Commercial Raspberry Fields in Washington for the Resistance-Breaking Strain of Raspberry Bushy Dwarf VirusRaspberry Bushy Dwarf Virus (RBDV) in a viral complex causes the symptom crumbly fruit in commercial Red Raspberry plants, making crops less profitable for growers. A strain of RBDV was found in Europe which could overcome genetic resistance to the virus. A similar resistance-breaking strain of RBDV (RBDV-RB) was reported very recently by Dr. Kara Lanning in Puyallup, Washington, making it the first case in North America. The goal of this study was to survey commercial regions of Whatcom County, Washington, and run diagnostics for RBDV-RB.
In the survey, about ten samples per field were taken from eight commercial fields in Lynden, Washington. ELISA, a test for generic RBDV in high titer, tested positive in seven of the eight fields. To differentiate the resistance breaking strain from the common strain of RBDV, RNA extracts were run through Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (QPCR) using primers specific to the European resistance-breaking strain of RBDV (R15) and of the common North American strain. All QPCR tests run read positive for the European primers and negative for the North American primers.

Julianna SchausBuilding an Intertextual Understanding of Dorothy L. Sayers' Detective FictionIn my Kelmer Roe research I explored the ways in which the act of quoting forms a baseline for an intertextual understanding of the world in Dorothy L. Sayers' Peter Wimsey novels. While scholars have examined detective Peter Wimsey's habit of literary quotation as performing a variety of functions within the context of the series, these examinations have been less frequently conducted from a quantitative standpoint. Using Holger Klein's categories of intertextuality to chart the frequency in which types of quotation appear alongside idioms and other common phrases, our collected data visibly demonstrates how various authors' ideas become woven into the structure of both characters' and readers' everyday understandings of the world as they occur through speech. Since intertextuality is so deeply rooted into ways of thinking, it impacts other forms understanding and interpretation, including that of evidence. Just as quotations are both influenced by and separate from the previous ideas surrounding their meaning, so evidence is rendered just as open to the flaws of the past and to later reinterpretation as the quotes are.
Alannah SmithOneness with Nature and Health Knowledge: An Examination of the Development of Biological ConceptsOur research examines how cultural values that emphasize one's connection with nature might influence the development of biological concepts associated with health knowledge. Little is known about social factors that influence the development of biological concepts, which occurs between 5 and 8 years old. Previous research demonstrates that children who interact with animals on a daily basis have a more accurate understanding of biological concepts than those without animal exposure (Geerdts, Walle, & LoBue, 2015). This indicates that environmental experiences can impact conceptual development. We will expand on this by examining how cultural values are a type of environmental experience that impacts this development. We first piloted measures with a general population of adults. These data were collected through an online Qualtrics survey. Participants consisted of individuals who accessed the link on publicly accessible websites and undergraduate students from PLU. The survey consisted of a Health and Illness Survey (McLaughlin, 2012) and the Connectedness to Nature Scale (Mayer & McPherson Frantz, 2004). These findings will be used to refine methods for assessing children's development of biological concepts. For the pilot study, we expect that the stronger one's connection to nature, the more complex their understanding of biological concepts will be. Our future research will expand the exploration of this relationship by focusing on children within the critical period for biological concept development who are raised in cultures that value closeness to nature. This study will demonstrate how culture can impact the development of cognitive processes, such as concept development.
Carli SnyderNavigating Hitler's Vision: Women Scientists' Intersecting Identities and Agency in Nazi Germany, 1933-1939This paper focuses on the experiences of women scientists from German-speaking lands during the rise of the Nazi Party. The National Socialist regime formulated and implemented antisemitic, sexist, anti-leftist, and anti-intellectual policies, which meant that some of these scientists were persecuted on all fronts. To address this multifaceted persecution, I utilize a feminist theory called intersectionality to analyze the stories of female scientists during the Nazi era. The first section of the paper includes explanation and analysis of various Nazi policies enforced throughout 1933-1939. The second section of the paper presents the stories of twelve individual women scientists, mathematicians, and doctors who were impacted differently by the early Nazi years based on their identities. Nazi policies affected the women included in this paper differently based on prejudice against their identities: whether they were Jewish or not, married or unmarried, Nazi-supportive or resistant, and if they already received their doctorate by the time the policies were enforced. At the end of each woman's respective section, intersectional analysis illustrates how various prejudices against the women's identities impacted the course of their lives. By juxtaposing stories of women who adapted to or welcomed Nazism in Germany with stories of women who were forced to flee, it becomes evident how varying forms of discrimination impacted women differently based on their personal identity. These stories also highlight the women's agency and decision-making during the Nazi years despite the persecution they faced.
Jessica StenbergEffectiveness of Cold Water Immersion and Recovery in SwimmersHYPOTHESIS: Cold Water Immersion (CWI) could aid in recovery and decrease time in a 100 yd. swim. RATIONALE: Limited research has investigated the effects of using CWI on recovery and performance in collegiate swimmers. METHODS: In this study, 21 division III swimmers (11 females and 10 males, age = 19 ± 1.4 years) completed two separate timed 100 yd. sprints after an intense 2 hr. swim workout. For each timed swim, half of the group had participated in a 10 min CWI in 12°C water the previous evening while the other group received no intervention. CWI and Control groups both participated in a double practice the previous day. Following completion of practice, swimmers answered a series of questions on their rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and muscle soreness using a visual analog scale (VAS) felt throughout practice (Pre-practice, every 30-min during practice and post 100 yd. performance test). Two weeks following the first data collection, CWI and Control groups switched. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between CWI and Control for 100 yd. times, muscle soreness, practice RPE, and VAS (P > 0.05). Qualitative data showed 33.3% felt CWI helped their performance. Although not significantly different, the 33.3% who felt an improved performance saw a 1.17 sec decrease (56.11 ± 3.4 s, vs. 56.28 ± 3.83 s; P = 0.59) in their timed performance. CONCLUSION: CWI did not elicit improved recovery and performance. However, individuals who responded well to CWI had saw their average performance time decrease.
Marc VetterThe Self-Determination Era: A Historical Overview of Federal Policy on American Indian Health Care from 1950-1976For Native American activists, the 1970's are widely regarded as the "golden era' of American Indian legislation". This decade saw the objective of Federal Indian policy shift from cultural assimilation towards self-determination for individual Native communities. This new episode in Federal-Indian relations decentralized the provision of Native American healthcare, allowing tribes to organize their own community health systems through contracts rather than relying on federal health structures. Nearly forty years later, self-determination has effectively reduced many healthcare access barriers for Native American communities. However, insufficient federal funding continues to be the most significant hurdle in achieving health parity between America's first peoples and the general U.S. population.

This project explores changing governmental attitudes towards Native American health care from the 1950's until the passage of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act (IHCIA) and the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (ISDEAA) in 1976. Furthermore, it documents the importance of several key political relationships which helped move federal policy away from assimilation and towards self-determination. Finally, this project includes a variety of interviews with physicians and administrators at the Puyallup Tribal Health Authority, an ambulatory care clinic opened and managed by the Puyallup Tribe of Indians under the ISDEAA. Using the perspectives gathered from these interviews, the project seeks to demonstrate how self-determination contracts, when fully funded by the federal government, can allow tribes to provide culturally competent and locally relevant care to members.
Marc Vetter, Sydney Otey, Ariel Wood, and Meagan GaskillImplications of the Writing Studio Workshop for Developing College Writers at PLUThe writing studio model, first outlined by Grego and Thompson in 1993, has been used to explore both the advantages and feasibility of creating flexible and personal workspaces that support the development of college-level writers. These writing studios are spaces in which students can discuss their challenges with writing and work to solve them in mini-lessons with peer facilitators outside of the classroom setting. Throughout the spring and fall semesters of 2016, the PLU Writing Center ran a workshop influenced by this model for self-identified English Language Learner (ELL) students. In line with PLU's mission, this workshop aimed to foster inter-cultural dialogue while providing individualized support for multilingual students adapting to PLU's academic culture.
In our discussions with students this past year, we have learned that while the university makes an effort to recruit multilingual students, there is still room for improvement in PLU's support of developing writers, particularly ELL students. After a trial run of the writing studio model, we believe continued use of the studio model may prove to be effective in improving both student experience and retention. First, the model allows students to emphasize the process of writing separate from the analysis of academic material. Additionally, the personal aspect of the studio model allows facilitators to engage with the individual writing background of participants in a way that can effectively help to bridge gaps in the writing process for students. This poster session will explore the ELL pilot study and argue that the student-led model works effectively but that more institutional structure is needed to develop this valuable source of support for PLU's developing writers.
Hilary Vo"Family Trees" Sense of Place Essay Project"Family Trees" is an autobiographical, research-based creative nonfiction essay collection that provides context for my lived experience of Tacoma. I was able to complete this research project through my role as the 2016 Fred Tobiason Outdoor Learning Scholar. In the five essays about Pacific Lutheran University and various urban nature sites in Tacoma, I utilize an immersive writing experience in which I responded to writing prompts on location to write exact, concrete details that create vivid imagery. I explore my personal narrative as a daughter of immigrants growing up in a diverse urban environment and the relationship that I have built with nature along the way. Each essay takes place during different periods in my life. The research-based component of these essays allowed me to access a deeper perspective on how the spaces were previously occupied by indigenous peoples, immigrants and plant species before I encountered them. My work is influenced by authors Sandra Cisneros and Daisy Hernandez whose works exemplify stories of immigrant narratives.
Mekenzie VoellgerHow the Big-5 Personality Inventory Influences Mentoring Relationships in College UndergraduatesThe benefits that a protégé gain from a mentoring relationship between a mentor and a protégé are widely acknowledged (Campbell & Campbell, 1997). The purpose of this research is to extend research (Shore & Rutter, 2015) to further address the question: Is there a mentoring personality? That is, do the effectiveness and benefits of the mentor-protégé relationship vary as a function of reliable individual differences on the part of the protégé? Researchers administered the Big5 personality inventory along with quantitative and qualitative questions to participants to identify individual differences in a protégés personality that influence their likelihood of seeking a mentor and benefitting from a mentor. It was found that extraversion acted as a reliable predictor for participant's likelihood of benefitting from a mentor. These results mildly support the hypothesis that there are individual differences on the part of the protégé that will influence their likelihood of engaging in a mentoring relationship during their undergraduate studies.
Breanna WiersmaOn "Internal Sight": The Limits of Reason in Milton's Paradise LostOne of the more commonly explored topics of John Milton's 1674 epic poem Paradise Lost is whether the characters have free will; using their free will as a point of departure allows for investigation of how characters attempt to make virtuous decisions. Still, one question is left largely unanswered: What tools does Eve use, and with what success do these tools help her make virtuous choices? In this essay, I argue that while intuition, obedience, and community set Eve in the path of virtue, her over-reliance on a limited sense of reason leads her to sin. Because Eve is unable to understand the entire context behind her trial, intuition provides a more accurate basis for virtuous decision-making than reason. I also explore the evolution of Milton's position on the limitations of reason from his earlier prose treatise, Areopagitica, in which he underscores the importance of reason in making virtuous choices. His message in Paradise Lost illustrates larger themes about humans' capacity for proving their virtue: it is through faith and intuition, not logic, that virtuous decisions are made.
Rodion ZhuravlevCharacterization of Diblock Copolymers for use in Solid State Polymer Electrolyte SolutionsSolid polymer electrolytes are a safer alternative to the current electrolytes found in lithium-ion batteries. Monomers with a bulky backbone, and an ion conductive ethylene oxide (EO) sidechain, are used to synthesize a diblock with another block composed of monomers of a high modulus. The resulting diblock is capable of creating nanomorphologies that allow ion conductive paths to travel through, and the other block may prevent dendrites from growing. It is important to understand the diblock copolymer phase diagram for these materials, and optical birefringence (OB) can be a useful tool for measuring the transitions between different nanomorphologies found in diblocks copolymers as a function of temperature. In order to attain samples with ordered morphologies, slow solvent evaporation (SSE) and doctor blading were investigated using a diblock known to form order. The SSE technique was used to make samples for OB. SSE samples produced an average hysteresis value of 9 °C and 19 °C for doctor bladed samples, indicating that SSE provided more precise data. Diblocks were also synthesized with a longer EO (n=12) side chain with a range of mass fractions. These diblocks were prepared via SSE and OB data was acquired, but consistent ordering was not confirmed. Small angle x-ray scattering data was also measured for the polymers studied by OB as well as diblock copolymers of other EO sidechain lengths.