Akiko Nosaka received her Ph.D. in anthropology at the Pennsylvania State University in 1997. She conducted fieldwork research on female fertility behavior in relation to their socio-cultural values and norms in rural Bangladesh. Her study results have been published in the Journal of Comparative Family Studies (2000) and the Journal of International Women’s Studies (2004). She also conducted research on the inter-generational family relationships of Germans and Turkish immigrants living in Germany. Some of the conclusions from this research have been published in the book Grandmotherhood: The Evolutionary Significance of the Second Half of Female Life (2005, Rutgers University Press). Her core study interests are family and inter-generational relationships, which she approaches by looking at issues such as aging, gender, fertility, migration, and ethnicity.