253.535.7400 |
www.plu.edu/math/ |
math@plu.edu |

Jessica Sklar, Ph.D., Chair |

The mathematics program at PLU is designed to serve five main objectives:

(a) to provide mathematical background for other disciplines,

(b) to provide a comprehensive pre-professional program for those directly entering the fields of teaching and applied mathematics,

(c) to provide a nucleus of essential courses that will develop the breadth and maturity of mathematical thought for continued study of mathematics at the graduate level,

(d) to develop the mental skills necessary for the creation, analysis, and critique of mathematical and quantitative topics, and

(e) to provide a view of mathematics as a humanistic endeavor.

**Beginning Classes**

Majors in mathematics, computer science, and other sciences usually take MATH 151 and MATH 152, if they have not placed above them. MATH 151 is also appropriate for any student whose high school mathematics preparation is strong. Those who have had calculus in high school may omit MATH 151 (see the Advanced Placement section) and enroll in MATH 152 after consultation with a student success advisor or a mathematics faculty member. Those who have less mathematics background may begin with MATH 140 before taking MATH 151. MATH 115 provides preparation for MATH 140.

Business majors may satisfy the requirement for the business degree by taking MATH 128, 151, or 152 (MATH 115 provides preparation for MATH 128).

Elementary education majors may satisfy the requirement for the education degree by taking MATH 123 and MATH 124 (MATH 115 provides preparation for MATH 123). Those majoring in a different area but planning to apply to PLU’s Master of Arts in Education elementary program need to take MATH 123 only.

For students who plan to take only one mathematics course, a choice from MATH 105, 107, 123, 128, 140, or 151 is advised, depending on the student’s interests, preparation and mathematics placement results.

**Mathematics Placement Evaluation
**

A Mathematics Placement Evaluation is used to help ensure that students begin in mathematics courses that are appropriate to their preparation and abilities. Enrollment is not permitted in any of the beginning mathematics courses (MATH 105, 107, 115, 123, 128, 140, 145, 151, 152, 242 and 253) until the placement evaluation is completed, unless a student has PLU credit for the course’s prerequisites. The link to the Mathematics Placement Evaluation is available at banweb.plu.edu.

The policy of the Department of Mathematics regarding mathematics credit for students who have taken the AP Calculus exams (AB or BC) or the International Baccalaureate Higher Level Mathematics Exam (IBHL) is as follows:

Exam Score Credit |
Score Credit |
Credit |

AB | 3* | MATH 151* |

AB | 4,5 | MATH 151 |

BC | 3 | MATH 151 |

BC | 4,5 | MATH 151 and 152 |

IBHL | 4,5 | MATH 151 |

IBHL | 6,7 | MATH 151 and 152 |

*Consult with instructor if planning to take MATH 152.

If a student has taken calculus in high school and did not take an AP exam or IBHL exam, then the student may enroll in MATH 152 after consultation with a student success advisor or a mathematics faculty member. In this case, no credit is given for MATH 151.

The Office of the Registrar determines whether a student meets the minimum entrance requirements. When a student has a deficiency, after taking the Mathematics Placement Evaluation, the student will receive a recommendation about how to remove the deficiency based on the test results.

If the evaluation result shows that a student is qualified to take MATH 115 or a higher numbered math course at PLU, then the deficiency will be removed when the student successfully passes such a course. In addition, the student will receive Mathematical Reasoning (MR) GenEd credit. Please be aware that credit taken from MATH 105, MATH 107, or any non-math course which carries the MR attribute does not remove a math deficiency.

If the Mathematics Placement Evaluation result shows that the student is not qualified to take MATH 115 or a higher numbered math course, the student will have to take a course at a community college to remove the deficiency in the minimum mathematics entrance requirement. The course content should be equivalent to or more difficult than high school algebra or geometry and it must be approved by the Department of Mathematics.

**Mathematics and General Education Program Elements**

The following mathematics courses will satisfy the Mathematical Reasoning (MR) element of the General Education Program: 105, 107, 115, 123, 124, 140, 145, 151, 152. At least 4 semester hours are needed. The following mathematics courses will satisfy the Natural Sciences, Computer Science, Mathematics (NS) element of the General Education Program: 105, 107, 115, 123, 124, 128, 140, 145, 151, 152, 203, 242, 253, 317, 318, 319, 351, 356. At least 4 semester hours are needed. A course cannot simultaneously satisfy Mathematical Reasoning (MR) and Science and Scientific Method (SM) GenEd elements.

**Mathematics and the College of Arts and Sciences Requirement**

*(see College of Arts and Sciences Requirements)*

All mathematics courses will satisfy the logic, mathematics, computer science or statistics part of Option III of the College of Arts and Sciences requirement. A course cannot simultaneously satisfy Option III of the College of Arts and Sciences requirement and a General Education element.

**Required Prerequisite Grades**

A grade of C or higher is required in all prerequisite courses.

### Bachelor of Arts Degree

**Major in Mathematics**

*32 semester hours of mathematics, plus 4 semester hours of supporting courses
*

- 32 semester hours of mathematics: MATH 152, 242, 253, 317 or 318 or 319, 331, 433, 455, 499A, 499B
- 4 semester hours of computer science: CSCI 144
- Strongly recommended (but not required): one course from: CSCI 371, ECON 345, or PHYS 153/163 Lab

### Bachelor of Science Degree

*36-40 semester hours of mathematics, plus 8 to 13 semester hours of supporting courses
*

- 32 semester hours of required mathematics courses: MATH 152, 242, 253, 317 or 318 or 319, 331, 433, 455, 499A, 499B
- 8 additional semester hours of electives from MATH 317, 318, 319*, 342, 348, 351**, 356, 381, 480, or PHYS 354

*(*At most, one of MATH 317, 318, and 319, not already used in the bullet point above, can be used towards the 8 additional semester hours of electives needed.***

*Only one course from either MATH 351 or PHYS 354 may be used*) - 8 or 9 semester hours of supporting courses: CSCI 144 and one course from: CSCI 371, ECON 345, or PHYS 153/163 Lab

**Major in Mathematics Education**

*36 semester hours of mathematics, plus 8 to 9 semester hours of supporting courses
*

- 36 semester hours of mathematics: MATH 152, 242, 253, 317 or 318, 319, 331, 433, 499A, 499B, and MATH/EDUC 446
- 4 semester hours of education: EDUC 205
- One course (4-5 semester hours) from: PHYS 125/135 Lab, PHYS 153/163 Lab, or CHEM 115
- Strongly recommended (but not required): MATH 455

A minimum of 128 semester hours must be completed with a GPA of 2.50 or higher. MATH/EDUC 446 must be completed with a B- or higher. MATH 433, 499A, and 499B must be completed with grades of C- or higher. All other mathematics courses counted toward a mathematics education major must be completed with grades of C or higher.

**Note:** The B.S. degree with a major in mathematics education together with a master’s degree in education provides a path to teacher certification in secondary mathematics in Washington State. Passing the NES exam in mathematics is required for teacher certification in secondary mathematics. Completion of the required math courses listed for the degree gives adequate preparation for the NES exam.

### Minors

*A minimum of 24 semester hours, chosen from the following courses:*

- BUSA 302, 335, 437, 438
- ECON 101, 301, 323, 344
- MATH 331, 342, 348, 356
- Also strongly recommended: MATH 253, DATA 133
- At least 12 semester hours must be taken from mathematics and at least 4 semester hours from economics

A maximum of 8 credit hours can simultaneously count towards both an actuarial science minor and a mathematics major. Courses taken for the actuarial science minor cannot be simultaneously used to satisfy a mathematics or statistics minor.

*16 semester hours of mathematics courses, including:*

- MATH 152 and either 245 or 253; and 8 semester hours of upper-division mathematics courses (excluding MATH/EDUC 446) and PHYS 354*.

*Only one course from either MATH 351 or PHYS 354 may be used.

*16 semester hours, to include:*

- CSCI 120 or 144; or DATA 133
- STAT 231, 232, or 233; or MATH/STAT 242
- And at least: 8 additional semester hours of statistics selected from BUSA 467, ECON 344, PSYC 242, MATH/STAT 342, MATH/STAT 348.

(Additional courses may be approved by the chair of the Department of Mathematics. See the Statistics section of this catalog for more details.)

A maximum of 8 credit hours can simultaneously count towards both a statistics minor and a mathematics major. Courses taken for the statistics minor cannot be simultaneously used to satisfy a mathematics or actuarial science minor.

### Course Offerings by Semester/Term

**Fall Semester:**105/107*, 115, 123, 124, 128, 140, 151, 152, 242, 253, 317/318/319**, 331, 433, 446, 499A**January Term:**105/107*, 317/318/319**, 381**Spring Semester:**105/107*, 115, 123, 124, 128, 140, 145, 151, 152, 245, 253, 317/318/319**, 321, 331, 342, 348, 351, 356, 455, 480, 499B**Odd Years Only:**480**Even Years Only:**342, 356, 446

*At least one section of 105 and at least one section of 107 are offered each academic year.

**At least one section of 317, 318, and 319 will be offered in each term of each academic year.

### Mathematics (MATH) - Undergraduate Courses

##### MATH 105 : Mathematics of Personal Finance - MR, NS

Emphasizes financial transactions important to individuals and families: annuities, loans, insurance, interest, investment, time value of money. Prerequisite: Eligibility based on PLU Math Placement Exam, or permission of instructor. (4)

##### MATH 107 : Mathematical Explorations - MR, NS

Mathematics and modern society. Emphasis on numerical and logical reasoning. Designed to increase awareness of applications of mathematics, to enhance enjoyment of and self-confidence in mathematics, and to sharpen critical thought in mathematics. Topics selected by the instructor. Prerequisite: Eligibility based on PLU Math Placement Exam, or permission of instructor. (4)

##### MATH 115 : College Algebra and Trigonometry - MR, NS

A review of algebra emphasizing problem solving skills. The notion of function is introduced via examples from polynomial, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions. We also explore inverse trigonometric functions, identities, graphing and the solving of triangles. Appropriate as preparation for Math 123, 128 and 140. Prerequisite: PLU math placement exam and two years of high school algebra. (4)

##### MATH 123 : Modern Elementary Mathematics I: Number Sense and Algebraic Sense - MR, NS

Numeration systems and concepts underlying traditional computations. Field axioms, number theory, set theory. Patterns and variables, functions, proportionality, linear versus exponential growth. Emphasis on conceptual understanding of mathematics through problem solving, reasoning, and communication. Analyzing children's problem solving strategies. Intended for elementary teaching majors. Prerequisites: A qualifying score on the math placement test or a grade of C or higher in MATH 115. (4)

##### MATH 124 : Modern Elementary Mathematics II: Measurement, Geometric Sense, Statistics and Probability - MR, NS

The units, systems and processes of measurement. Classification and measurement of geometric objects. Symmetry, transformations, congruence, dilations, similar figures. Display, analysis, and interpretation of data. Basic probability. Emphasis on conceptual understanding of mathematics through problem solving, reasoning, and communication. Analyzing children's problem solving strategies. Intended for elementary teaching majors. Prerequisite: A grade of C or higher in MATH 123. (4)

##### MATH 128 : Linear Models and Calculus, An Introduction - MR, NS

Matrix theory, linear programming, and introduction to calculus. Concepts developed stressing applications, particularly to business. Prerequisites: Two years of high school algebra or MATH 115. Cannot be taken for credit if MATH 151 (or the equivalent) has been previously taken with a grade of C or higher. (4)

##### MATH 140 : Precalculus - MR, NS

Different types of functions, their properties and graphs, especially trigonometric functions. Algebraic skill, problem solving, and mathematical writing are emphasized. Prepares students for calculus. Prerequisites: MATH 115 or equivalent high school material. (4)

##### MATH 145 : Statistics for Biologists - MR, NS

An introduction to statistics with a focus on topics and data relevant to biologists. Descriptive statistics and data representations, correlation and regression, experimental design, basic probability, binomial and normal distributions, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, chi-squared test, ANOVA. Cross-listed with STAT 145. Prerequisite: MATH 140 or proficiency through MATH 140 as determined by the math placement exam. (4)

##### MATH 151 : Calculus I - MR, NS

Functions, limits, derivatives, the fundamental theorem of calculus, and an introduction to integrals with applications. Emphasis on derivatives. Prerequisite: MATH 140 or PLU Math Placement into MATH 151. (4)

##### MATH 152 : Calculus II - MR, NS

Continuation of MATH 151. Techniques and applications of integrals, improper integrals, ordinary differential equations and power series, with applications. Prerequisite: MATH 151. (4)

##### MATH 203 : History of Mathematics - NS

A study in the vast adventure of ideas that is mathematics from ancient cultures to the 20th Century. The evolution of the concepts of number, measurement, demonstration, and the various branches of mathematics in the contexts of the varied cultures in which they arose. Prerequisite: MATH 152 or consent of instructor. (4)

##### MATH 242 : Introduction to Mathematical Statistics - NS

Data description, probability, discrete and continuous random variables, expectations, special distributions, statements of law of large numbers and central limit theorem, sampling distributions, theory of point estimators, confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, regression (time permitting). Cross-listed with STAT 242. Previously was MATH/STAT 341. Prerequisite: MATH 151. (4)

##### MATH 245 : Discrete Structures - NS

Topics that are of relevance to computer scientists and computer engineers, including quantified logic, sets, relations, functions, recursion, combinatorics, and probability. Tools of logical reasoning, such as induction, proof by contradiction, and predicate calculus, will be taught and applied. Prerequisite: MATH 151 or placement into MATH 152. (4)

##### MATH 253 : Multivariable Calculus - NS

An introduction to vectors, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, and vector analysis. Prerequisite: MATH 152. (4)

##### MATH 287 : Special Topics in Mathematics

To provide undergraduate students with new, one-time, and developing courses not yet available in the regular curriculum. The title will be listed on the student term-based record as ST: followed by the specific title designated by the academic unit. (1 to 4)

##### MATH 288 : Special Topics in Mathematics

To provide undergraduate students with new, one-time, and developing courses not yet available in the regular curriculum. The title will be listed on the student term-based record as ST: followed by the specific title designated by the academic unit. (1 to 4)

##### MATH 289 : Special Topics in Mathematics

To provide undergraduate students with new, one-time, and developing courses not yet available in the regular curriculum. The title will be listed on the student term-based record as ST: followed by the specific title designated by the academic unit. (1 to 4)

##### MATH 291 : Directed Study

Supervised study of topics selected to meet the individual's needs or interests; primarily for students awarded advanced placement. Admission only by departmental invitation. (1 to 4)

##### MATH 317 : Introduction to Proofs: Number Theory - NS

Introduces ideas of elementary number theory while emphasizing the importance of proof-related concepts such as mathematical grammar, logical equivalence, direct proofs, indirect proofs, proof by contradiction, and proof by induction. Content may include modular arithmetic, prime numbers, divisibility, number systems, and Diophantine equations. Prerequisite: MATH 152. (4)

##### MATH 318 : Introduction to Proofs: Combinatorics - NS

Introduces ideas of combinatorial reasoning while emphasizing the importance of proof-related concepts such as mathematical grammar, logical equivalence, direct proofs, indirect proofs, proof by contradiction, and proof by induction. Content may include basic counting principles, permutations and combinations, binomial coefficient identities, generating functions, recurrence relations, inclusion-exclusion, graph theory, and algorithms. Prerequisite: MATH 152. (4)

##### MATH 319 : Introduction to Proofs: Geometry - NS

Introduces the foundations of geometry while emphasizing the importance of proof-related concepts such as mathematical grammar, logical equivalence, direct proofs, indirect proofs, proof by contradiction, and proof by induction. Content may include Euclidean, projective, and non-Euclidean geometries (possibly including spherical geometry and hyperbolic geometry). Prerequisite: MATH 152. (4)

##### MATH 331 : Linear Algebra - NS

Vectors and abstract vector spaces, matrices, inner product spaces, linear transformations. Proofs will be emphasized. Prerequisites: MATH 253 or one of 317/318/319 or both MATH 245 and CSCI 270. (4)

##### MATH 342 : Probability and Statistical Theory

Continuation of MATH 242. Topics may include: joint and conditional distributions, correlation, functions of random variables, moment generating functions, Bayesian and non-parametric inference, convergence of distributions. Cross-listed with STAT 342. Prerequisite: MATH 152 and four hours from STAT 231, 232, 233, or MATH/STAT 242. MATH 253 (or concurrent enrollment) is strongly recommended. (4)

##### MATH 348 : Statistical Computing and Consulting

Topics include qualitative data analysis, as well as the use of R statistical software to create data visualizations and to conduct, present, and interpret statistical analyses such as multiple regression and nonlinear (e.g. logistic) regression. Students will learn about issues that arise when working with real data such as data cleaning, data preparation, ethical guidelines for statistical practice, and the logical connections between study design and the appropriate inferences that can be made. Statistical consulting strategies and communication of statistical ideas to nonstatistical clients will guide the course topics as students perform consulting services for peers, faculty, and/or the surrounding community. Cross-listed with STAT 348. Prerequisite: DATA 133, CSCI 144, or MATH 151, and one of MATH/STAT 145, 242, STAT 231, 232, or 233. Strongly recommended: Prior experience with the programming languages R or Python. (4)

##### MATH 351 : Differential Equations - NS

An introduction to differential equations emphasizing the applied aspect. First and second order differential equations, systems of differential equations, power series solutions, non-linear differential equations, numerical methods. Prerequisite: MATH 253. (4)

##### MATH 356 : Numerical Analysis - NS

How computers store and handle numbers, how to efficiently perform mathematical computations, how to build useful functions to interpolate from discrete data, and how to create algorithms to find or approximate mathematical solutions. Topics and applications will be selected from the solution of linear, nonlinear and differential equations; computational matrix theory; numerical integration and differentiation; and other areas of instructor interest. Prerequisites: MATH 152 and CSCI 144. (4)

##### MATH 381 : Seminar in Problem Solving

Designed to improve advanced problem solving skills for mathematical competitions, especially the Putnam Competition and the Mathematical Contest in Modeling. Pass/Fail only. May be taken more than once for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. (1)

##### MATH 387 : Special Topics in Mathematics

##### MATH 388 : Special Topics in Mathematics

##### MATH 389 : Special Topics in Mathematics

##### MATH 433 : Abstract Algebra

The algebra of axiomatically defined objects, such as groups, rings, and fields, with emphasis on theory and proof. Prerequisites: MATH 317 or 318 or 319 and 331. (4)

##### MATH 446 : Mathematics in the Secondary School

Methods and materials in teaching secondary mathematics. Introduction to Common Core State Standards in Mathematics, effective and equitable mathematics teaching practices, and curriculum design. This course includes a field experience component. Cross-listed with EDUC 446. Prerequisite: EDUC 205 and MATH 253 or 331. (4)

##### MATH 455 : Mathematical Analysis

Theoretical treatment of topics introduced in elementary calculus. Prerequisites: MATH 253, one of 317, 318, or 319, and 331. (4)

##### MATH 480 : Topics in Mathematics

Selected topics of current interest or from: combinatorics, complex analysis, differential geometry, dynamical systems chaos and fractals, graph theory, group representations, number theory, operations research, partial differential equations, topology, transform methods, abstract algebra, analysis. May be taken more than once for credit. Prerequisites: vary depending on the topic. (1 to 4)

##### MATH 487 : Special Topics in Mathematics

##### MATH 488 : Special Topics in Mathematics

##### MATH 489 : Special Topics in Mathematics

##### MATH 491 : Independent Study

To provide individual undergraduate students with advanced study not available in the regular curriculum. The title will be listed on the student term-based record as IS: followed by the specific title designated by the student. Prerequisite: consent of department chair. (1 to 4)

##### MATH 499A : Capstone: Senior Seminar I - SR

Preparation for oral and written presentation of information learned in individual research under the direction of an assigned instructor. Discussion of methods for communicating mathematical knowledge. Selection of topic and initial research. With MATH 499B meets the senior seminar/project requirement. Prerequisites: MATH 331 and senior (or second semester junior) standing, or permission of instructor. (2)

##### MATH 499B : Capstone: Senior Seminar II - SR

Continuation of MATH 499A with emphasis on individual research and oral and written presentation. With MATH 499A meets the senior seminar/project requirement. Prerequisite: MATH 499A. (2)